Top dogs can catch things too!  Our NEW dog show panel checks for 8 pathogens potentially transmissible at dog shows.

 Neuro symptoms getting on your nerves? Try our canine neurological panel - 6 neurological pathogens from 1 CSF sample; or our feline neurological panel - 5 neurological pathogens from 1 CSF sample.

Oh baby! Try our canine breeding PCR panel - 3 canine sexually transmitted diseases tested from swabs or semen samples.

Respiratory symptoms got you breathless? Try our canine respiratory PCR panel - we test for 8 canine respiratory pathogens from throat, nasal and eye swabs.

...or maybe you need our feline respiratory PCR panel -- 6 feline respiratory pathogens from throat, nasal and eye swabs.

Diarrhea got you on the run? Try our canine diarrhea PCR panel -- 8 major diarrheagenic agents from 1 fecal specimen...
...OR our 9-pathogen feline diarrhea PCR panel.

Not feeling sanguine about bloodborne pathogens in cats? Try our feline bloodborne PCR panel -- 4 major bloodborne pathogens from 1 blood sample.

Ticks bugging you? Try our tickborne disease PCR panel -- 7 major tickborne pathogens from 1 blood sample.

Just plain sick and tired? Try our canine anemia PCR panel or our feline anemia PCR panel -- detect and differentiate multiple anemia pathogens from 1 blood sample.

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Zoologix performs canine and feline PCR tests for...

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Anaplasma platys

Aspergillus species

Aspergillus fumigatus

Babesia

Bartonella

Baylisascaris procyonis

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Borrelia burgdorferi

Brucella canis

Campylobacter

Canine adenovirus type 1

Canine adenovirus type 2

Canine enteric coronavirus (CCV1)

Canine distemper

Canine herpesvirus

Canine papillomavirus

Canine parainfluenza virus

Canine parvovirus

Canine respiratory coronavirus (CCV2)

Chagas disease

Chikungunya virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Clostridium species

Coccidia

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

Cytauxzoon felis

Demodex gatoi mites

E. coli

Ehrlichia

Fading kitten syndrome

Feline calicivirus

Feline distemper

Feline enteric coronavirus

Feline foamy virus

Feline herpesvirus type 1

Feline immunodeficiency virus

Feline infectious anemia

Feline infectious peritonitis

Feline leukemia

Feline panleukopenia

Feline papillomavirus

Feline pneunomitis

Feline rhinotracheitis virus

Feline sarcoma virus

Feline syncytial virus

Francisella tularensis

Giardia

Group G strep

Haemobartonella canis

Haemobartonella felis

Helicobacter

Influenza

Lawsonia intracellularis

Leishmania

Leptospira

Lyme disease

Mange in cats

Microsporum

MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staph aureus)

Mycoplasma canis

Mycoplasma felis

Mycoplasma haemocanis

Mycoplasma haemofelis

Neorickettsia helmintheca

Neospora caninum

Pasteurella multocida

Pneumocystis carinii

Rabies

Reovirus screen

Rickettsia screen

Ringworm

Salmonella

Salmon poisoning disease

Sarcocystis neurona

Streptococcus, Group G

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus zooepidemicus

Toxoplasma gondii

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trichophyton

Trypanosoma cruzi

Tularemia

West Nile virus

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Ringworm PCR panel for dogs and cats

dog and cat assay data sheet

Ringworm (Microsporum and Trichophyton)

Test code:
P0053 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection and differentiation of Microsporum and Trichophyton, common causes of ringworm in dogs and cats, by real time PCR.

 

In cats, about 98% of ringworm (dermatophytosis) cases are caused by Microsporum canis and almost all of the other 2% by Trichophyton. In dogs, ringworm is also usually caused by Microsporum canis; but it is also caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and sometimes by other fungi, more frequently than in cats.

The most common clinical signs of these dermatophyte organisms include any combination of hair loss, scaling, and erythema, with or without pruritus. Because these symptoms overlap with skin diseases caused by a wide range of non-dermatophytes, it is very difficult to identify the organism by clinical presentation alone.

Transmission of Microsporum and Trichophyton dermatophytes is dependent on many factors including, but not limited to, the amount of infective material, frequency of exposure, general health of the animal, and physiological stress. Dermatophyte fungi infect the hair shaft, follicle, and surrounding skin. Infected hairs become brittle, and broken shafts can remain infective in the environment for months. Direct contact with these broken-off hair shafts represents the most common form of transmission. Approximately 25% of human ringworm cases reported annually are attributed to animal contact.

Microsporum
Microsporum
is a genus of fungi that infects mammals, and in humans causes ringworm, tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and other dermatophytoses (fungal infections of the skin). At least seventeen species of Microsporum have been described, including M. amazonicum, M. audouinii, M. boullardii, M. canis, M. distortum, M. cookie, M. duboisii, M. equinum, M. ferrugineum, M. fulvum, M. gallinae, M. gypseum, M. langeronii, M. nanum, M. persicolor, M. praecox, M. ripariae and M. rivalieri.  In 2016, a new classification scheme was proposed to limit the Microsporum genus to just three species: M. audouinii, M. canis and M. ferrugineum. The remaining geophilic and zoophilic species, previously considered Microsporum species, are now proposed to be transferred to the genera Lophophyton, Nannizzia and Paraphyton. For example, M. gypseum is now renamed as Nannizzia gypsea and M. persicolor is now Nannizzia persicolor.

Among these Microsporum species, M. canis has worldwide distribution and lives on both animals and humans. It is a frequent cause of ringworm in humans, especially children. Cats and dogs are the main sources of human M. canis infection.

M. ferrugineum is a species which prefers living on human and can cause epidemic juvenile tinea capitis in humans. The clinical features are similar to those of infections caused by M. audouinii, another species which prefers living on humans, causing non-inflammatory infections of the scalp and skin, especially in children. It had been the major cause of tinea capitis in Europe and North America, but is now less common.

From a taxonomic point of view, fusiform macroconidia with rough to echinulate walls differentiate Microsporum species from Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species. Microsporum species may form both macro- and microconidia, although they are not always present. This makes identification of Microsporum difficult by microscopy alone.

Trichophyton
Trichophyton
is another genus of fungi which causes opportunistic fungal diseases in mammals. In humans, Trichophyton cause tinea, including athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, and similar infections of the nail, beard, skin and scalp. The most common agent of tinea capitis in North America is Trichophyton tonsurans whereas in much of Europe, M. canis is a more common cause of tinea capitis.

Trichophyton fungi are characterized by the development of smooth-walled macro- and microconidia. Sixteen species are now recognized in the genus; these include T. concentricum, T. equinum, T. benhamiae, T. bullosum, T. eriotrephon, T. erinacei, T. interdigitale, T. mentagrophytes, T. quinckeanum, T. rubrum, T. schoenleinii, T. simii, T. soudanense, T. tonsurans, T. verrucosum and T. violaceum.

In horses, dermatophytosis is mainly caused by Trichophyton equinum, but occasionally infection with T. verrucosum may occur in horses having direct contact with infected cattle.

 

Identification and differentiation of these fungal infections by clinical symptoms alone is very difficult. Laboratory workup is required to differentiate these fungal infections from other similar non-fungal diseases. Culture detection has been used for a long time to identify these fungi but fungal growth is very slow, and even if there is fungal growth, it is hard to differentiate the different types of dermatophytes by culture. Molecular detection by PCR, however, is fast, specific and sensitive, and is now the method of choice for detecting and differentiating these fungi.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Microsporum or Trichophyton infection.
  • Help ensure that animal groups are free of these fungi
  • Early prevention of spread of these fungi
  • Minimize human exposure to these fungi

References:
Verrier, J and Monod, M. (2017) Diagnosis of dermatophytosis using molecular biology. Mycopathologia. 82:193-202.

Specimen requirements: Swab or sterile toothbrush run deeply through hair and against skin for at least 30 seconds, or environmental surface swab.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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