Hepatitis B virus (HBV) by PCR
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus by
real time PCR
- ELISA detection of total antibodies to hepatitis B virus in
with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health problem,
and is estimated to account for approximately one million deaths
from chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma each
year. Although hepatitis virus B was found exclusively in human
population and seemed to be specific to humans, a few studies
have indicated a wide prevalence in non-human primates (Bancroft
et al., 1977; Grethe et al., 2000; Heckel et al., 2001; Kessler
et al., 1982; Lanford et al., 2000), especially primates in
captivity. Some cases of HBV infection of non-human primates
have been traced back to contamination by humans. In the wild,
HBV infection has been documented in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gibbons (Hylobates spp.), orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla).
Serological testing to detect HBV is
not very reliable. Numerous authors have reported the existence
of sera that are HBsAg negative, but HBV DNA PCR positive. For
example, Blum et al. (1991) observed that the HBV genome in one
such patient had numerous mutations, which resulted in low
levels of HBsAg production, absence of HBeAg production, and a
defect that terminated virus replication. Michalak et al. (1994)
documented that the HBsAg-negative PCR-positive state could last
for at least 5 years, and that the HBV particles actually
existed as naked core particles but with intact virions,
presumably in the form of immune complexes. Rehermann et al.
(1996) also found that PCR positivity could persist for at least
23 years after the disappearance of HBsAg. Thus, serological
testing can result in a number of false negative results. PCR
detection of HBV DNA is now regarded as the most appropriate
method to confirm the presence of HBV DNA.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal colonies are free of Hepatitis B
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a colony
Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from primates
Bancroft, W.H., Snitbhan, R., Scott, R.M., Tingpalapong, M.,
Watson, W.T., Tanticharoenyos, P., Karwacki, J.J. and Srimarut,
S. (1977) Transmission of hepatitis B virus to gibbons by
exposure to human saliva containing hepatitis B surface antigen.
J. Infect. Dis. 135:79-85.
Blum, H.E., Liang, T.J., Galun,
E. and Wands, J.R. (1991) Persistence of hepatitis B viral DNA
after serological recovery from hepatitis B virus infection.
Grethe, S., Heckel, J.O., Rietschel, W.
and Hufert, F.T.(2000) Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B
virus variants in nonhuman primates. J. Virol. 74:5377-5381.
Heckel, J-O., Rietschel, W. and Hufert, F.T. (2001) Prevalence
of hepatitis B virus infections in nonhuman primates. J. Med.
Primatol. 30: 14-19.
Kessler, H., Tsiquaye, K.N., Smith, H.,
Jones, D.M. and Zuckerman, A.J. (1982) Hepatitis A and B at the
London Zoo. J. Infect. Dis. 4: 63-67.
Lanford, R.E., Chavez,
D., Rico-Hesse, R. and Mootnick, A.(2000) Hepadnavirus infection
in captive gibbons. J. Virol. 74: 2955-2959.
Souquiere, S., Telfer, P., Leroy, E., Bourry, O., Rouquet, P.,
Clifford, S., Wickings, E.J., Roques, P. and Simon, F. (2003) J.
Med. Primatol. 32:307-14.
Michalak, T.I., Pasquinelli, C.,
Guilhot, S. and Chisari, F.V. (1994) Hepatitis B virus
persistence after recovery from acute viral hepatitis. J. Clin.
Rehermann, B., Ferrari, C., Pasquinelli,
C. and Chisari, F.V. (1996). The hepatitis B virus persists for
decades after patients' recovery from acute viral hepatitis
despite active maintenance of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response.
Nat. Med. 2:1104-8.
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top)
tube, or 0.2 ml plasma or serum,
or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed liver tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR