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Yes, we're still the PCR experts. But Zoologix also performs ELISA antibody tests for...

SRV
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STLV
Measles
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Hepatitis B
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* * *

Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...

Adenoviruses

Aspergillus

B virus

Babesia

Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi

Burkholderia

Campylobacter

Chagas' disease

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Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis

Clostridium

Cronobacter sakazakii

Cryptosporidium

Cytomegalovirus, baboon

Cytomegalovirus, chimpanzee

Cytomegalovirus, human

Cytomegalovirus, macaque

Cytomegalovirus, simian

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E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

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Encephalitis, St. Louis

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Entamoeba species

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Giardia

Gibbon ape leukemia

Helicobacter

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Hepatitis B virus

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Herpes ateles

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Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 2

Herpes tamarinus

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus papio 1 & 2

Herpesvirus saimiri

Human adenoviruses

Human herpesviruses types 6, 7 & 8

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2

Human T cell lymphotropic virus

Human Varicella-Zoster

Influenza

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Leptospira

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Neisseria gonorhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis

Papillomavirus

Parvoviruses

Plasmodium species

Reovirus screen

Rhesus rhadinovirus

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Simian agent 6 (SA6)

Simian agent 8 (SA8)

Simian foamy virus (SFV)

Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHFV)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Simian parainfluenza virus

Simian retrovirus (SRV)

Simian sarcoma virus

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) type 3

Simian Varicella-Zoster

Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

SV40

SV5

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Tuberculosis

Ureaplasma

West Nile virus (WNV)

Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

* * *

Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Cynomolgus genotyping

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

smCCR5Δ24
in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements


Shigella and E coli PCR tests for primates
environmental and primate assay data sheet

Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Test codes:

B0008 - Qualitative detection of Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli bacteria, by polymerase chain reaction. Assay detects but does not differentiate S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, and enteroinvasive E. coli strains including EIEC 41, EIEC 42, EIEC 120 and EIEC 121.

B0054 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Shigella bacteria only, by real time polymerase chain reaction. This assay detects but does not differentiate most Shigella strains; it does not detect E. coli.

Test B0054 is included in P0041 - waterborne pathogens screening panel

B0055 - Quantitative assay for Shigella bacteria by real time polymerase chain reaction. This assay detects and quantifies Shigella DNA present in a sample as a percentage of the total DNA present in the sample. The assay does not differentiate Shigella strains and does not detect E. coli.

Shigella bacteria are gram negative, non-spore forming bacilli. S. flexneri (types 2, 4, 6), S. sonnei and S. dysenteriae are the most common organisms causing problems in primates. Humans are considered their main reservoir.

Shigella-induced dysentery is often mistaken for EIEC (enteroinvasive E. coli). Five recognized classes of enterovirulent E. coli (collectively referred to as the EEC group) cause gastroenteritis in humans. Although E. coli is considered part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and other primates, a minority of E. coli strains are capable of causing illness in human and primates by several different mechanisms. Among these are the enteroinvasive (EIEC) strains.

Both Shigella and EIEC are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, through contaminated food or water or by direct contact, aerosol, or mechanical vectors such as flies. The organisms are shed from both clinically ill and asymptomatic humans and primates. Even minimal contact is adequate for transmission.

Infection of primates by these bacteria usually results in a subclinical carrier state, but disease may then be induced by stress. Signs include watery to bloody diarrhea, weakness, and edema of the face and neck. Rectal prolapse is common. High mortality can result from Shigellosis in primates. Recovered animals are often carriers and can act as a reservoir of infection.

Fecal or blood culture with selective media is sometimes used to identify Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli. However, microbiological culture is slow and not very sensitive. Molecular detection of these bacteria is highly sensitive and specific, and is also highly tolerant of suboptimal specimen shipping and handling conditions that would invalidate other testing methods.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Shigella or EIEC infection
  • Help ensure that colonies are free of these bacteria
  • Early prevention of spread of these bacteria among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to these bacteria
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from primates

Specimen requirements:

Preferred specimens - Rectal swab, or 0.2 ml feces or bacterial culture.

Less preferred specimen - 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube.

Note:  Fecal and swab samples are not recommended for assay B0055, as solid samples generally cannot be accurately quantitated in this assay.  Liquid samples such as culture or blood are recommended for accurate quantitation.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodologies:
B0008 -
Qualitative PCR
B0054 - Qualitative real time PCR
B0055 - Quantitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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