Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...

Adenoviruses

African green monkey endogenous virus

Aspergillus

B virus

Babesia

Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi

Burkholderia

Campylobacter

Chagas' disease

Chikungunya virus

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis

Clostridium

Coccidioides

Cronobacter sakazakii

Cryptosporidium

Cytomegalovirus, baboon

Cytomegalovirus, chimpanzee

Cytomegalovirus, human

Cytomegalovirus, macaque

Cytomegalovirus, simian

Dengue

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Encephalitis, Japanese

Encephalitis, St. Louis

Encephalomyocarditis (EMCV)

Entamoeba species

Enterovirus

Epstein-Barr virus

Giardia

Gibbon ape leukemia

Helicobacter

Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis C virus

Herpes ateles

Herpes B virus

Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 2

Herpes tamarinus

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus papio 1 & 2

Herpesvirus saimiri

Human adenoviruses

Human herpesviruses types 6, 7 & 8

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2

Human T cell lymphotropic virus

Human Varicella-Zoster

Influenza

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Leishmania

Leptospira

Lyme disease

Lymphocryptovirus

Malaria

Measles

Monkeypox

Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Neisseria gonorhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis

Papillomavirus

Parvoviruses

Plasmodium species

Reovirus screen

Rhesus rhadinovirus

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Simian agent 6 (SA6)

Simian agent 8 (SA8)

Simian foamy virus (SFV)

Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHFV)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Simian parainfluenza virus

Simian retrovirus (SRV)

Simian sarcoma virus

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) type 3

Simian Varicella-Zoster

Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

SV40

SV5

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Tuberculosis

Ureaplasma

Valley fever

West Nile virus (WNV)

Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

* * *

Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Cynomolgus genotyping

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

smCCR5Δ24
in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements


Primate genetics: Trim5 alpha PCR test for macaques

primate genetic test data sheet

 

TRIM5α genotyping for macaques

Test codes:
GP006
- detection of Mamu-6 allele by PCR
GP007 - detection of Mamu-7 allele by PCR

 

The TRIM5α gene has recently been identified as an important factor in restriction of infectivity of immunodeficiency viruses. Homologs of this gene have been identified in humans, nonhuman primates and some other vertebrates.

The functional effect of the TRIM5α protein appears to be somewhat species-specific. For example, TRIM5α restricts SIV infection in Old World monkeys but the human TRIM5α protein does not have a similar restrictive function relative to HIV infection in humans.

The TRIM5α protein possesses a characteristic tripartite structure, its three structural motifs being ring, B Box 2, and coiled coil domains. Together with other members of the TRIM family, TRIM5α also has a C-terminal PRY/SPRY, or B30.2 domain, which is the most important domain conferring antiviral specificity.

Several variants of the TRIM5α protein have been described; they are named Mamu-1 through Mamu-7. In vitro studies have shown that Mamu-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 can efficiently restrict HIV-1 and MLV-N (N-tropic murine leukemia virus), whereas Mamu-6 does not restrict either retrovirus (Newman et al. 2006).

The Mamu-7 variant, also called TRIMCyp, has recently been discovered in New World owl monkeys and in rhesus macaques. The Mamu-7 variant is created by insertion of a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA by retrotransposition into the seventh intron of the TRIM5α gene, leading to replacement of the exon eight-encoded PRY/SPRY/B30.2 domain with the cyclophilin A gene. This change alters antiviral specificity and leads to restriction of retroviruses that recruit CypA to their incoming capsid, including HIV-1, feline immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus from Tantalus monkey (SIVtan).

Characterization of the underlying genotype of the TRIM5α gene is important for the proper selection of macaques for AIDS studies.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm TRIM5α genotype in macaques
  • Prequalification of rhesus and cynomolgus macaques for preclinical trials

References:
Newman, R. M., Hall, L., Connole, M., Chen, G-L., Sato, S., Yuste, E., Diehl, W., Hunter, E., Kaur, A., Miller, G.M. and Johnson, W.E. (2006) Balancing selection and the evolution of functional polymorphism in Old World monkey TRIM5α. PNAS 103: 19134-19139.

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or buccal swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Normal range: Homozygous or heterozygous for the variant

Turnaround time: 3 business days

Methodology: PCR

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