rodent and rabbit assay data sheet
obvelata, Syphacia muris and Aspiculuris tetraptera)
X0022 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection but not
differentiation of common rodent pinworm species Syphacia
obvelata, Syphacia muris and Aspiculuris tetraptera by real time PCR
nematode parasites belonging to the family Oxyuridae.
They have simple, direct life cycles and are frequent
contaminants of both specific pathogen free (SPF) and
conventional colonies of laboratory mice and rats. They are
transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs.
Aspiculuris tetraptera and
Syphacia muris infect both mice and rats, with the latter
being the main pinworm of rats.
S. obvelata mainly
infects mice but can also infect rats, hamsters, gerbils and
wild rodents. A.
tetraptera can infect mice, rats (rarely) and wild rodents.
Animals may be
infected with >1 pinworm species concurrently. The prevalence of
pinworms in an infected rodent population depends on many
factors, such as age, strain and immune status. Athymic mice
have an increased susceptibility to infection because of reduced
parasites usually reside in the cecum or colon. They feed on
bacteria present in the lumen. When the
migrate to the anus, they lay their adhesive-coated eggs
directly on the perianal skin. The eggs become infective 5-20
hours after release. S.
obvelata has a prepatent period (time from ingestion of
infective larvae to production of eggs by mature worms) of 11-15
parasites may embryonate on the host and re-infect the animal by
migrating back into the body.
Aspiculuris tetraptera larvae live in the proximal colon,
after hatching in the cecum.
A. tetraptera migrate
from the proximal to distal colon to deposit eggs. The eggs are
then excreted in the feces and are not infective until 5-8 days
later. A. tetraptera
has a 21-25 day prepatent period.
Infected mice or
rats can carry light to medium loads of pinworms with no signs
of disease; however, if the level of pinworms is high, animals
may suffer from rectal prolapse, enteritis, intestinal
impaction, sticky stools, and pruritus (itchy skin).
has been diagnosed by finding ova using the perianal tape test (Syphacia species only), anal swabbing, or fecal floatation and/or
centrifugation. However, the sensitivity of these methods is
low. Examination of the cecal and colonic contents is more
sensitive, but this method is not suitable for routine screening
of rodent colonies or populations. PCR detection of these
parasites has been found to be just slightly less sensitive than
direct examination of cecal and colonic contents, but more
sensitive than the other methods (Dole et al., 2011). Pinworm
tissue and eggs are shed intermittently in feces, so testing
feces at multiple time points or from multiple individuals at a
single time point can be helpful when screening colonies.
Because PCR can be performed on fecal samples, it is often more
convenient than other techniques for screening rodent colonies
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of
Help ensure that animal populations and facilities are free
Early prevention of the spread of pinworms
Minimize human exposure to pinworms
Dole, V.S., Zaias, J.,
Banu, L.A., Waterman, L.L., Sanders, K. and Henderson,
K.S. (2011) Comparison of traditional and PCR methods during
screening for and confirmation of Aspiculuris tetraptera
in a mouse facility. JAALAS 50: 904-909.
Specimen requirement: Fecal pellet or perianal
cellophane tape impression
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected