Screening your mice? Try our Mouse Essentials PCR Panel. All the most important mouse colony screening tests, all by expert real time PCR...

...or how about our new Mouse PCR Minipanel - PCR tests for only the most common mouse pathogens - for economical colony screening...

...and don't forget our Mouse Fecal PCR Panel - includes 9 important fecal pathogens.

And... just for rabbits: our new Rabbit Fecal PCR Panel tests for 3 common causes of GI problems in rabbits.

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Zoologix also performs rodent PCR tests for...

Aspiculuris tetraptera

Bordetella

Campylobacter

Clostridium piliforme

Coccidia

E. coli (enteroinvasive)

Ectromelia

EDIM

Encephalomyocarditis

Francisella tularensis

Fur mites

Hantavirus

Helicobacter

Human adenoviruses

Klebsiella pneumoniae

K virus

Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)

Mites

Mouse adenoviruses

Mouse cytomegaloviruses

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)

Mouse minute virus (MMV)

Mouse norovirus (MNV)

Mouse parvovirus (MPV)

Mouse polyoma virus (POLY)

Mousepox virus (aka ectromelia virus, EV or ECTRO)

Mouse rotavirus

Mycoplasma pulmonis

Mycoplasma screen

Pasteurella

Pinworms

Pneumocystis carinii

Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)

Rabbit fibroma virus

Rat bite fever

Rat coronavirus

Reovirus screen

Reovirus type 3 (REO3)

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Sendai virus (SEND)

Seoul virus

Shigella

Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV)

Streptobacillus moniliformis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Syphacia muris

Syphacia obvelata

Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Treponema cuniculi

Tularemia

Tyzzer's disease

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Yersinia pestis PCR test for rodents

rodent and rabbit assay data sheet

Yersinia pestis (Plague)

Test code: B0065 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, by real time polymerase chain reaction.

Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Formerly called Pasteurella pestis, it is a facultative anaerobe that can infect humans and other animals. Stained, it has a “safety pin” appearance.

Three main forms of infection can occur in humans, referred to as pneumonic plague, septicemic plague and bubonic plague. All three forms have caused high mortality rates in epidemics throughout human history, including the Black Death (the bubonic form) that accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population in 1347 to 1353.

In North America, fleas infected with Yersinia pestis have been found on wild rodents and other animal species from the Pacific Coast to the Great Plains, and from southwestern Canada to Mexico. Most human cases in the United States occur in two regions: 1) northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and southern Colorado; and 2) California, southern Oregon, and far western Nevada (Adjemian et al., 2007).

Rodents are a common reservoir of these bacteria; their fleas help disseminate the disease. When humans live in close proximity to infected rodents, the bacteria can pass to humans via flea bites. Once the bacteria enter the bloodstream, they migrate to the lymph nodes. The ability of Yersinia pestis to inhibit phagocytosis allows it to avoid destruction by immune system cells such as macrophages and thereby to proliferate in lymph nodes, causing lymphadenopathy.

Airborne transmission to humans results in pneumonic plague, whereas patients infected by the bubonic or septicemic forms seldom exhibit pneumonic characteristics. After an incubation period, patients with pneumonic plague show sudden onset of coughing, high temperature, and lack of energy; these symptoms increase in severity over time. Due to its high replication rates, plague proves fatal in roughly 50% of human cases even with medical treatment, and is almost universally fatal without treatment.

Traditionally, the "gold standard" for testing fleas for Y. pestis infection has been the inoculation of mice with ground flea suspensions. Inoculated mice are monitored for death, which usually takes at least 21 days; tissues from these dead mice are then tested by fluorescent antibody analysis for evidence of Y. pestis infection. This testing approach, however, requires considerable time and personnel involvement. False negative results can occur when death is used as the assay endpoint, because some mice occasionally survive the infection. Molecular detection is a rapid, sensitive, specific and safer alternative for identification of Y. pestis.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Y. pestis infection.
  • Help ensure that rodent colonies and populations are free of these bacteria
  • Early prevention of spread of these bacteria among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to these bacteria
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from rodents

References:
Adjemian, J.C., Foley, P., Gage, K.L. and Foley, J.E. (2007) Initiation and spread of traveling waves of plague, Yersinia pestis, in the western United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 76:365-375.
Engelthaler, D.M., Gage, K.L., Montenieri, J.A., Chu, M. and Carter, L.G. (1999) PCR Detection of Yersinia pestis in fleas: Comparison with mouse inoculation. J. Clin. Microbiol., 37:1980-1984.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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