Ruminating about hoofstock "issues"?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel



Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi


Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever





Coxiella burnetii


Cryptosporidium serpentis

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel





Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus




Hepatitis E


Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses


Lawsonia intracellularis



Listeria monocytogenes

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Mink enteritis virus


Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Pasteurella multocida

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudoloma neurophilia


Q fever



Reovirus screen


Rift Valley fever



Sarcocystis neurona

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum


Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi


Valley Fever

Vesicular stomatitis


West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Citrobacter freundii PCR test

wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Citrobacter freundii

Test code:
B0086 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Citrobacter freundii by real time PCR.


Citrobacter freundii are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteraceae family. These bacteria are ubiquitously present in the environment and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle by reducing nitrate to nitrite. They can be found in soil, water, sewage, food and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans.

The bacteria are long rod-shaped and are generally surrounded by several flagella conferring motility, though a few strains are non-motile. C. freundii is an opportunistic pathogen, with human infections usually limited to people with immune dysfunction. It can cause nosocomial infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract and blood. C. freundii represents more than a quarter of all opportunistic infections in humans.

Infection with Citrobacter freundii may result in diarrhea, septicemia, meningitis, and urinary tract and respiratory system infection.

Culture identification of C. freundii is difficult because the growth and biochemical characteristics of these bacteria closely resemble those of Salmonella bacteria. Molecular detection of these bacteria by polymerase chain reaction is highly specific and sensitive, and is a good alternative to the culture method.


  • Confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Citrobacter freundii
  • Help ensure that animal facilities are free of this bacterium
  • Early prevention of spread of C. freundii in a facility
  • Minimize human exposure to this bacterium
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from susceptible animals

Specimen requirements:  0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or nasopharyngeal swab, or environmental swab, or 0.2 ml feces, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue, or culture.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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