wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of
by real time PCR.
are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli of the
Enterobacteraceae family. These bacteria are ubiquitously
present in the environment and play an important role in the
nitrogen cycle by reducing nitrate to nitrite. They can be found
in soil, water, sewage, food and the intestinal tracts of
animals and humans.
The bacteria are long
rod-shaped and are generally surrounded by several flagella
conferring motility, though a few strains are non-motile. C.
freundii is an opportunistic pathogen, with human
infections usually limited to people with immune dysfunction. It
can cause nosocomial infections of the respiratory tract,
urinary tract and blood. C. freundii represents more
than a quarter of all opportunistic infections in humans.
Infection with Citrobacter freundii may
result in diarrhea, septicemia, meningitis, and urinary tract
and respiratory system infection.
Culture identification of
C. freundii is difficult because the growth and biochemical
characteristics of these bacteria closely resemble those of
Salmonella bacteria. Molecular detection of these bacteria
by polymerase chain reaction is highly specific and sensitive,
and is a good alternative to the culture method.
Confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
Help ensure that animal facilities are free of this bacterium
Early prevention of spread of
C. freundii in
Minimize human exposure to this bacterium
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
from susceptible animals
ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube,
or nasopharyngeal swab, or environmental swab,
or 0.2 ml feces, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or
fixed tissue, or culture.
types other than those listed here, please call to confirm
specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR