Ruminating about hoofstock "issues"?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel

Aspergillus

Babesia

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi

Campylobacter

Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coronaviruses

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptosporidium

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enterobacteraceae

Enterovirus

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Giardia

Helicobacter

Hepatitis E

Histoplasma

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Legionella

Leptospira

Listeria monocytogenes

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Mink enteritis virus

Monkeypox

Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Pasteurella multocida

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Pseudorabies

Q fever

Rabies

Ranavirus

Reovirus screen

Rickettsia

Rift Valley fever

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Sarcocystis neurona

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi

Vaccinia

Vesicular stomatitis

Vibrio

West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Monkeypox PCR test
wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Monkeypox

Test code:
S0025 - Qualitative detection of monkeypox virus (MPV) by polymerase chain reaction

 

Monkeypox virus (MPV) is an orthopoxvirus that is genetically distinct from other members of the Poxviridae family, including the variola, vaccinia, ectromelia, camelpox, and cowpox viruses. It was first identified as the cause of a pox-like illness in captive monkeys at the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen in 1958. Currently, MPV is regarded as the most important orthopoxvirus infection in human beings since the eradication of smallpox. By contrast with variola virus, however, MPV has a wide range of hosts, which has allowed it to maintain a reservoir in wild animals while sporadically causing human disease, and has precluded its global eradication by human vaccination.

Serological surveys suggest that many animals are infected with MPV under natural conditions, including squirrels, non-human primates, and rats. After 1997, human monkeypox attracted little attention worldwide until May, 2003, when the CDC received reports from the central USA of patients who developed fever and a rash after close contact with pet prairie dogs and other mammals. This outbreak, with a total of 81 identified cases (40% laboratory confirmed), was due to human monkeypox, a disease that had previously never been recorded in the western hemisphere. Traceback investigations identified an international shipment of about 800 small mammals from Ghana to Texas as the probable source for the introduction of MPV into the USA. Gambian giant rats from this shipment were transported from Texas via an Iowa animal vendor to a pet distributor in the Chicago area, where they were co-housed with prairie dogs (Cynomus spp). Infected prairie dogs were subsequently transported from the distributor to a vendor in Wisconsin, where they were sold to the index patient and others. Infected prairie dogs, which through a non-linear chain of distribution may have also been sold at "swap meets" in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, have been implicated as the source of primary infection for most of the US cases.

Although virus isolation can be used to diagnose monkeypox virus infection, a long incubation period is required to obtain results. Viral culture also increases the potential risk of laboratory personnel contacting this virus. Furthermore, viral culture is less sensitive, reliable and specific than polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Serological testing for MPVantigens is difficult because of the close antigenic relation between surface antigens among the orthopoxviruses. Various serological methods are available, including a virus-neutralising test with hyperimmune reference sera, a haemagglutination-inhibition assay with chicken erythrocytes, and detection of specific viral antibodies. The sensitivities of these tests vary (50–95%), however, and serological tests are not useful for the diagnosis of acute infection. Expert opinion is that no serological assay currently available can reliably diagnose orthopoxvirus infections with high sensitivity.

Monkeypox detection by PCR is the most rapid, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of this infection.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal groups and populations are free of MPV
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus among a population
  • Minimize human exposure to this virus

Specimen requirement: Lesion scab or vesicle fluid swab.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodologies: Qualitative PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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