Ruminating about hoofstock "issues"?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel

Aspergillus

Babesia

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi

Campylobacter

Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coronaviruses

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptosporidium

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enterobacteraceae

Enterovirus

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Giardia

Helicobacter

Hepatitis E

Histoplasma

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Legionella

Leptospira

Listeria monocytogenes

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Mink enteritis virus

Monkeypox

Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Pasteurella multocida

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Pseudorabies

Q fever

Rabies

Ranavirus

Reovirus screen

Rickettsia

Rift Valley fever

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Sarcocystis neurona

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi

Vaccinia

Vesicular stomatitis

Vibrio

West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Q Fever PCR test
wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Q fever (etiologic agent: Coxiella burnetii)

Test code:
B0066 - Ultrasensitive detection of Coxiella burnetii by real time PCR

 

Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium which lives only in nucleated cells and is present ubiquitously in the environment.

Cattle, sheep, and goats are the primary reservoirs of C. burnetii. However, many other animals can be infected including other species of livestock and pets. Infection of these animals does not usually result in clinical symptoms, and even in goats and sheep abortion is the major clinical symptom reported.

Infected asymptomatic domestic animals can spread the disease to humans.  Infected animals can excrete the bacteria in milk, urine, and feces. Most importantly, the organisms are shed in high numbers in amniotic fluid and placenta during birthing. 

C. burnetii is highly resistant to heat, drying, and many common disinfectants. It can survive for long periods in the environment, and be transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosols and dust at farms and other animal facilities. 

Humans are very susceptible to the disease and inhalation of only very few organisms is sufficient to cause infection. Ingestion of contaminated milk or milk products can transmit the disease but is not common.  Transmission to humans can also occur through tick bites.  However, direct human to human transmission is very rare. 

Culture detection of the bacteria is difficult and is not available in most laboratories. Serological detection of the bacteria is unreliable. For example, serum antibodies are detectable about 2 weeks after the initial infection of sheep. The antibody concentrations reach a maximum at 30 to 60 days, then rapidly decline and phase into the seasonal antibody cycle of the rest of the flock in relation to the lambing season (McCaul et al, 1981). Therefore, if the infected sheep is tested by serology during the low point of the cycle, when antibody concentration is below the detectable level, it will be misleading to claim a seronegative flock basing on the testing result.

Molecular detection by PCR is unaffected by changes in the infection cycle, and enables rapid, sensitive and specific detection of C. burnetii in a sample (Panning et al., 2008).

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Identify Q fever carriers
  • Help ensure that animal facilities and populations are free of Q fever
  • Early prevention of spread of Q fever among animals
  • Minimize human exposure to Q fever
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from animals

References:
McCaul, T.F., Hakstadt, T. and Williams, J.C. (1981) Ultrastructural and biological aspects of Coxiella burnetii under physical disruptions. In: Burgdorfer W, Anacker RL, eds. Rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981.

Panning, M., Kilwinski, J., Greiner-Fischer, S., Peters, M., Kramme, S., Frangoulidis, D., Meyer, H., Henning, K. and Drosten, C. (2008) High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation. BMC Microbiol. 8:77.

Specimen requirements: Whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or rectal swab or genital swab, or 0.2 ml feces, milk, urine, amniotic fluid or aborted tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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