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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel

Aspergillus

Babesia

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi

Campylobacter

Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coccidioides

Coronaviruses

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium serpentis

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enterobacteraceae

Enterovirus

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Giardia

Hantavirus

Helicobacter

Hepatitis E

Histoplasma

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Legionella

Leishmania

Leptospira

Listeria monocytogenes

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Mink enteritis virus

Monkeypox

Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Pasteurella multocida

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Pseudorabies

Q fever

Rabies

Ranavirus

Reovirus screen

Rickettsia

Rift Valley fever

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Sarcocystis neurona

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi

Vaccinia

Valley Fever

Vesicular stomatitis

Vibrio

West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


St. Louis encephalitis PCR test
wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

St. Louis encephalitis

Test code:
S0057 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction

 

West Nile (WN) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are both arthropod-borne viruses within the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex (Murphy et al., 1995). They belong to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. This group of viruses possesses a single positive strand of RNA genome of approximately 11 kb. Like West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, SLE is transmitted primarily through Culex species mosquitoes and birds. Humans, primates and other mammals are thought to be incidental hosts (Monath and Heinz, 1996).

Unlike WN, endemic SLE virus transmission in nature is silent, with no reports of avian mortality. Nevertheless, significant endemic spread of SLE in United States and in several South American countries has been reported. Over the past 70 years, SLE virus has been responsible for numerous epidemics throughout the United States; the largest occurred in 1975, with approximately 2,000 cases reported (Monath and Heinz, 1996).

Detection of this SLE virus by virus isolation followed by identification through immunofluorescence assays can take over a week to complete. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are also used to detect this virus. However, confirmation of the infection can only be inferred by a fourfold or greater rise in virus-specific neutralizing antibody titers in either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum by performing the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) with several flaviviruses. Virus culture from CSF or serum has generally been unsuccessful due to the low level and short-lived viremia. PCR detection of this virus, thus, represents a rapid, specific and sensitive approach to detection of this virus.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal groups and populations are free of SLE virus
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among a population
  • Minimize human exposure to the virus

References:
Monath, T.P. and Heinz, F.X. (1996) Flaviviruses, p. 978-984. In B.N. Fields (ed.), Fields virology, vol. 1, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
Murphy, F.A., Fauquet, C.M., Bishop, D.H.L., Ghabrial, S.A., Jarvis, A.W., Martelli, G.P., Mayo, M.A. and Summers, M.D. (1995) Virus taxonomy, classification and nomenclature of viruses. Arch. Virol. 10 (Suppl): 1-586.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen CNS tissue, or 0.2 ml CSF, serum or plasma.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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