wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
Swine vesicular disease
Ultrasensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus by
reverse transcription coupled real time PCR
vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a porcine enterovirus in the
family Picornaviridae. It is antigenically related to the human
enterovirus Coxsackie B-5 but is unrelated to other known
Pigs are the
only species naturally infected, but laboratory personnel have
been infected due to occupational exposure.
infected with this virus show almost identical clinical signs to
mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. The clinical signs
include fever, salivation and lameness. Vesicles and erosions
can be seen on the snout, mammary glands, coronary band, and
interdigital areas. Vesicles in the oral cavity are relatively
rare. The infection may be subclinical, mild, or severe
depending on the virulence of the strain. Severe signs are
generally seen only in pigs housed on damp concrete. Younger
animals can be more severely affected. Neurologic signs due to
encephalitis, such as shivering, unsteady gait, and chorea
(rhythmic jerking) of the legs, are rare. Abortion is not
typically seen. Recovery occurs within 2 to 3 weeks, usually
with little permanent damage.
of the virus can occur by ingestion of contaminated meat scraps
or contact with infected animals or their feces. Pigs can
excrete the virus from the nose, mouth, and in feces up to 48
hours before clinical signs are seen. Virus can be shed in the
feces for up to three months following infection. Furthermore,
SVDV can survive for long periods of time in the environment; it
is resistant to heat up to 69°C (157°F) and pH ranging from 2.5
to 12. It can also survive up to two years in lymphoid tissue
contained in dried, salted, or smoked meat.
vesicular disease is considered to be moderately contagious.
Compared to FMD, morbidity is lower and the lesions are less
severe. Mortality is not generally a concern with swine
neither disease is currently present in North America,
differentiation of these two vesicular diseases is still
important because the introduction of FMD could cause severe
vesicular disease or other vesicular diseases should be
suspected when vesicles or erosions are found on the snout
and/or feet of pigs. Differentials for swine vesicular disease
include FMD, vesicular stomatitis, vesicular exanthema of swine,
and chemical or thermal burns. In swine vesicular disease
outbreaks, pigs will be the only species affected, the lesions
will be mild, and there will be no mortality. Other vesicular
diseases must be ruled out with laboratory tests.
SVDV can be
identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the
direct complement fixation test, and virus isolation in
pig-derived cell cultures. Virus neutralization and ELISA can be
used for serological diagnosis. However, all these methods are
relatively nonspecific and are labor intensive to perform.
Molecular detection by PCR can enable rapid, specific and
sensitive characterization of the virus (Ferris et al., 2006;
Reid et al. 2004).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Identify SVDV virus carriers
Help ensure that animal colonies and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Ferris, N.P., King, D.P., Reid, S.M., Hutchings, G.H., Shaw,
A.E., Paton, D.J., Goris, N., Haas, B., Hoffmann, B., Brocchi,
E., Bugnetti, M., Dekker, A. and De Clercq, K. (2006)
Foot-and-mouth disease virus: a first inter-laboratory
comparison trial to evaluate virus isolation and RT-PCR
detection methods. Vet Microbiol. 117:130-40.
Paton, D.J., Wilsden, G., Hutchings, G.H., King, D.P., Ferris,
N.P. and Alexandersen, S. (2004) Use of automated real-time
reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to
monitor experimental swine vesicular disease virus infection in
pigs. J. Comp. Pathol. 131:308-17.
Vesicular fluid or lesion swab, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA
(purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml feces, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.
types other than those listed here, please call to confirm
specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR