wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
S0118 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Aleutian disease
by real time PCR
disease virus (ADV) is a parvovirus that was first discovered in
mink farms in the 1950s. It was so named because mink that were
homozygous for the Aleutian (blue) gene were most severely
affected by the illness. In addition to mink, ADV has been found
to infect other mustelids such as skunks and ferrets.
several uncharacterized strains of ADV, but the most common
strains are ADV-Utah (the original strain discovered which is
the most virulent in mink), ADV-F (a ferret-specific strain),
and ADV-G (a non-virulent strain used for laboratory studies).
The ADV-F strain is thought to be a mutated form of the original
mink ADV and is only pathogenic in ferrets.
infected with ADV can manifest as a chronic wasting disease. In
some severe cases, multiple organ systems can be involved. Any
combination of the following symptoms may be seen in infected
animals: chronic weight loss, lethargy, cough, hind limb
paralysis or weakness, head tremors, enlarged kidney, liver
and/or spleen, and blood abnormalities (dyscrasias).
highly contagious and many infected animals are carriers without
displaying outward symptoms of the disease. The virus can easily
be transmitted via casual contact with the saliva, blood, feces,
or urine of infected animals. It can also be spread via contact
with contaminated surfaces or objects. If handlers get ADV on
their hands or clothes they can transmit it between animals. How
frequently an infected animal sheds the virus is currently not
ADV-infected animals by serological methods is not reliable
because exposure to this virus is widespread (Fournier-Chambrillon
et al., 2004). Serology will not identify carriers of the virus.
Detection of ADV nucleic acid by PCR can reliably identify
carriers and confirm diagnosis.
Help confirm the
disease causing agent
time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of
Aleutian disease infection
Help ensure that
mink farms and other mustelid colonies are free of Aleutian
prevention of spread of this virus among a colony
Environmental monitoring for this virus
human exposure to this virus
monitoring of biological products that derive from mustelids
Fournier-Chambrillon, C., Aasted, B., Perrot, A., Pontier,
D., Sauvage, F., Artois, M., Cassiède, J.M., Chauby, X., Dal
Molin, A., Simon, C. and Fournier, P. (2004) Antibodies to
Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in free-ranging European mink (Mustela
lutreola) and other small carnivores from southwestern France.
J. Wildl. Dis. 40:394-402.
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml feces, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA
(purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen
or fixed tissue.
if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type
for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen
types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm
specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
real time polymerase chain reaction
Aleutian disease PCR test