wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
Influenza type A
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of influenza A virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction. This assay detects
but does not differentiate most known strains of influenza A viruses,
including H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, H3N8, H4N6,
H5N1, H5N2, H7N2, H7N7, H8N4 and H9N2.
a severe acute upper respiratory infection, and typical symptoms
include pyrexia, dyspnea, anorexia and coughing. Several different
subtypes and strains of influenza viruses infect humans, felids,
canids, suids, birds, equids and other animal species.
various strains, the avian influenza viruses have been a
concern in recent years. The natural reservoir for these viruses is wild birds,
and birds are only susceptible to influenza A viruses, but these
strains can be passed from birds to other species.
large cats in zoos can be infected with avian influenza. In December
2003, two tigers and two leopards that were fed fresh chicken
carcasses from a local slaughterhouse died at a zoo in Thailand. Avian
influenza virus H5N1 was identified in their tissue samples. In
February and March 2004, the virus was detected in a clouded leopard
and white tiger, respectively, both of which died in a zoo near
Bangkok. In October 2004, 147 of 441 captive tigers in a zoo in
Thailand died or were euthanized as a result of infection after
being fed raw chicken carcasses. Results of a subsequent investigation
suggested that at least some tiger-to-tiger transmission occurred in
Due to the
airborne nature of the disease, infection of one animal can
quickly and easily spread to other animals and in some cases to
and from humans. Rapid and affordable
testing of suspected influenza cases is thus essential to
control the spreading of the disease. PCR is a fast, sensitive
and specific method for detection of influenza virus in a
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of influenza
Help ensure that primate colonies are free of influenza
Early prevention of spread of this virus
Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
- nasopharyngeal swab.
- 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions. For all
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.
2 business days
reverse transcription coupled real time PCR