Moving reptiles?  Use our snake and lizard quarantine PCR panel to avoid spreading contagious agents.

Ruminating about hoofstock issues?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

Our Rodent Infestation PCR Panel tests for 5 common pathogens found in rodent-contaminated facilities.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel

Anisakis worms

Aspergillus

Babesia

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi

Camelpox

Campylobacter

Canine circovirus

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Capillaria xenopodis

Chlamydia/
Chlamydophila

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

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Coccidioides

Coronaviruses

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcosis

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium serpentis

Cryptosporidium varanii (formerly saurophilum)

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Edwardsiella

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Enterobacter cloacae

Enterovirus

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Francisella tularensis

Giardia

Hantavirus

Helicobacter

Hepatitis E

Herring worms

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Influenza type A

Influenza type B

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Legionella

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Leptospira

Listeria monocytogenes

Lizard quarantine panel

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Malaria

Mink enteritis virus

Monkeypox

Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola

Pasteurella multocida

Plasmodium species

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudocapillaroides xenopi

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Pseudorabies

Pseudoterranova worms

Q fever

Rabies

Ranavirus

Reovirus screen

Rickettsia

Rift Valley fever

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Sarcocystis neurona

Snake fungal disease

Snake quarantine panel

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
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Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi

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Vaccinia

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Vesicular stomatitis

Vibrio

West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Tularemia PCR test
wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

Test code: B0058 - Ultrasensitive screen for Francisella tularensis by real time polymerase chain reaction.

Francisella tularensis is a small Gram-negative aerobic bacillus with two main serotypes: Jellison Type A and Type B. Type A is the more virulent form. Tularemia is frequently spread by direct contact with rabbits, leading to the term "rabbit fever." The disease can also be spread by rodents, and by ticks.

F. tularensis is very resistant to environmental changes and is capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. Small mammals such as voles, mice, water rats, squirrels, rabbits, and hares are natural reservoirs for F. tularensis. These animals are infected with the bacteria through bites from ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes and contact with contaminated environments. People are infected through bites from infected arthropods (usually ticks), contact with infected animal tissues or fluids, direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated water, food, or soil, or inhalation of aerosolized bacteria. F. tularensis is very infectious so that the simple act of examining an open laboratory culture plate without adequate protective equipment can lead to infection and disease. For this reason, F. tularensis is classified as a bioterrorism agent and culture of the bacteria without suitable laboratory facilities is not recommended.

People infected with the bacteria can develop symptoms in 3 to 5 days but some people may take as long as two weeks for symptoms to develop. Symptoms vary with mode of infection, but generally include fever, chills, joint and muscle pain, headache, weakness and sometimes pneumonia. People who develop pneumonic tularemia experience chest pain, bloody sputum and difficulty breathing. The disease is easily cured by antibiotic treatment.

Culture detection of the bacteria is usually not suitable due to the highly infectious nature of the bacteria. Culture is also not very sensitive (Johansson et al., 2000). Serological diagnosis can be unreliable because some infections may not result in seroconversion (Johansson et al., 2000). Molecular detection of F. tularensis is rapid, sensitive and specific.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Tularemia infection
  • Help ensure that animal populations and facilities are free of Tularemia
  • Early prevention of the spread of Tularemia
  • Minimize human exposure to Tularemia
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from susceptible animals

References:
Johansson, A., Berglund, L., Eriksson, U., Göransson, I., Wollin, R., Forsman, M., Tärnvik, A. and Sjöstedt, A. (2000) Comparative Analysis of PCR versus Culture for Diagnosis of Ulceroglandular Tularemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 22-26.

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.1 ml synovial fluid, or tick.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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