wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
B0088 - Qualitative ultrasensitive detection of Enterobacter
by real time PCR.
B0089 - Qualitative ultrasensitive detection of Enterobacter
by real time PCR.
Bacteria of the Enterobacter genus are facultative
anaerobic Gram-negative strains belonging to the family
Enterobacteriaceae and are ubiquitous in the environment. These
bacteria can be found in soil and sewage, and as normal
gastrointestinal flora of humans and many animal species.
Currently, six species have been assigned to the
Enterobacter cloacae complex, including E. cloacae,
E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, E. kobei, E. ludwigii and
Among them, E. cloacae is most important because it accounts for
up to 5% of hospital-acquired sepsis, 5% of nosocomial
pneumonias, 4% of nosocomial urinary tract infections and 10% of
postsurgical peritonitis cases. E. cloacae tends to contaminate
various medical, intravenous and other hospital devices, and
nosocomial outbreaks of E. cloacae have been associated with its
colonization of certain surgical equipment and operative
cleaning solutions. E. nimipressuralis is a plant pathogen and
has not been associated with human diseases.
Members of E. cloacae complex have
general characteristics of the genus Enterobacter: they are
catalase-positive, oxidase- and DNAase-negative, fermentative
and nonpigmented. They can be routinely identified using
phenotypic methods. However, identification solely based on
phenotypic methods may lead to misidentification. For example,
E. hormaechei can be misidentified as Cronobacter sakazakii
based on phenotypic methods (Townsend et al., 2008). However,
molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly
specific and sensitive and can help the identification process
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of infection by these
Help ensure animal groups and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of these bacteria
among a population
Minimize human exposure to
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from susceptible animals
Hurrell, E., Caubilla-Barron, J., Loc-Carrillo, C. and Forsythe,
S.J. (2008) Characterization of an extended-spectrum
betalactamase Enterobacter hormaechei nosocomial outbreak, and
other Enterobacter hormaechei misidentified as Cronobacter
(Enterobacter) sakazakii. Microbiology 154:3659–3667.
ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml food, or 0.2 ml urine, or nasopharyngeal
swab, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml feces.
Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate
specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For
specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to
confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR