Campylobacter PCR test for dogs and cats
dog and cat assay data sheet
B0006 - Ultrasensitive qualitative screen for
Campylobacter species by real time polymerase chain
This assay detects but does not differentiate
C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus,
C. lari and other Campylobacter species.
B0006 is included
on P0022 - canine diarrhea panel, on P0028 - feline diarrhea panel
- waterborne pathogens screening panel
Campylobacteraceae includes 2 genera,
Arcobacter. There are 18
species and subspecies within the genus
Campylobacter, 11 of which
are considered pathogenic to humans, causing enteric and
extra-intestinal illnesses. The major pathogens are
Campylobacter jejuni and
Campylobacter fetus. These pathogens are small, curved,
motile, microaerophilic, gram-negative rods.
contaminated food and drinking water, transmission of these bacteria
can occur through direct contact with carrier animals. The presence of
puppies in a household has been reported to be an important risk
factor for campylobacteriosis, especially for children.
It is known that
dogs are an important reservoir for
C. upsaliensis, a
Campylobacter species. Cats have been shown to be carriers
of C. helveticus, a thermophilic
Campylobacter species which is difficult to differentiate
from C. upsaliensis by
biochemical tests. These two bacteria are known human pathogens. Close
social contact between owners and their dogs and cats makes
transmission of Campylobacter
spp. highly probable.
suffering from campylobacteriosis develop diarrhea, cramping,
abdominal pain, and fever within 2 to 5 days after exposure to the
organism. The diarrhea may be bloody and can be accompanied by nausea
and vomiting. The symptoms may last for one week. Some persons who are
infected with Campylobacter,
however, may not have any symptoms at all. In persons with compromised
immune systems, Campylobacter
can occasionally spread to the bloodstream and causes a serious
People who get
campylobacteriosis usually recover completely within 2 to 5 days, but
recovery can sometimes take up to 10 days. Although rare, long-term
consequences can result from a
Campylobacter infection. Some people may have arthritis
following campylobacteriosis; others may develop a rare disease that
affects the nerves of the body beginning several weeks after the
diarrheal illness. This disease, called Guillain-Barré syndrome,
occurs when a person's immune system is "triggered" to attack the
body's own nerves, and can lead to paralysis that lasts several weeks
and usually requires intensive care. It is estimated that
approximately one in every 1000 reported campylobacteriosis cases
leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome. As many as 40% of Guillain-Barré
syndrome cases in the United States were caused by campylobacteriosis.
isolation can be used to diagnose
Campylobacter infection, a long incubation period is
required to obtain results. Furthermore, bacterial culture is neither
very sensitive nor very specific, and it increases the potential risk
of laboratory personnel contacting the bacteria. Subspecies
identification by culture can be difficult due to new variants.
Campylobacter detection by
PCR is not only rapid, sensitive and specific, but can also accurately
subtype the bacteria.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that pet dogs and cats are free of
Early prevention of spread of the bacteria among pets
Minimize human exposure to
Safety monitoring of biological products derived from
Elmore, D. B., J. H. Anderson, D. W. Hird, K. D. Sanders, and N. W.
Lerche (1992). Diarrhea rates and risk factors for developing chronic
diarrhea in infant and juvenile rhesus monkeys. Lab. Anim. Sci.
Munoz-Zanzi, C. A., M. C. Thurmond, D. W. Hird, and N.
W. Lerche (1999) Effect of weaning time and associated management
practices on postweaning chronic diarrhea in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca
mulatta). Lab. Anim. Sci. 49:617-621.
Sestak, K., Merritt, C.K.,
Borda, J., Saylor, E., Schwamberger, S.R., Cogswell, F., Didier, E.S.,
Didier, P.J., Plauche, G., Bohm, R.P., Aye, P.P., Alexa, P., Ward, R.
and Lackner, A.A. (2003) Infectious agent and immune response
characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus macaques.
Infect Immun. 71:4079-86.
Baze, W.B. and Bernacky, B.J. (2002)
Campylobacter-induced fetal death in a rhesus monkey. Vet Pathol.
Kulkarni, S.P., Lever, S., Logan, J.M., Lawson, A.J.,
Stanley, J. and Shafi, M.S. (2002) Detection of campylobacter species:
a comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction based methods. J
Clin Pathol. 55:749-753.
specimen: 0.2 ml feces, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml bacterial culture.
preferred specimen: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen
types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm
weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack
unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen
specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more
2 business days
Qualitative real time
Campylobacter PCR test for dogs and cats