Canine pneumovirus PCR test
dog and cat assay data sheet
S0236 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of canine pneumovirus
by reverse transcription real time polymerase chain reaction
Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) is an enveloped, single-strand
negative-sense RNA virus associated with respiratory disease in dogs.
It is considered one of the etiological agents of canine infectious
respiratory disease complex (CIRDC), also known as “kennel cough” or
“canine shipping fever.”
CnPnV belongs to family
Orthopneumovirus, This genus includes viruses associated with both animal and human
respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial viruses
(HRSV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), murine pneumonia
virus (MPV) and the recently discovered novel swine orthopneumovirus
Complete genome sequence
analysis of CPV shows that it is closely related to mouse pneumonia
virus (MPV), with 95–96% nucleotide identity.
CnPnV was discovered in 2010 and subsequent investigations into the
prevalence of CPV in respiratory illness dogs showed widespread
occurrence in various outbreaks among canine breeding colonies and
shelters in the United States and Europe. Furthermore, retrospective
surveys of CPV seroprevalence in European dogs revealed an estimated
CPV-seropositive level of about 50% in pet dogs and a markedly higher
level of up to 93.5% in kenneled dogs.
Thus, CPV is widely
spread over various areas in America and Europe and is not
Similar to other pathogens in the CIRDC, transmission of this virus is
mainly through aerosolized droplets; or direct contact with saliva or
nasal secretions of infected dogs. The virus initially colonizes the
respiratory epithelium lining the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi.
Because most dogs are infected through exposure to aerosolized
secretions, there is often a predictable temporal relationship between
exposure to other dogs and the onset of clinical symptoms, anywhere
from 3-10 days in most cases.
Diagnosis of canine pneumovirus requires the use of molecular
detection techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), because
it is very difficult to culture this virus (Mitchell et al., 2013).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal groups and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a
Minimize human exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from susceptible animals
Mitchell, J. A., Cardwell, J. M., Renshaw, R. W., Dubovi, E. J., &
Brownlie, J. (2013). Detection of canine pneumovirus in dogs with
canine infectious respiratory disease. Journal of clinical
microbiology, 51: 4112–4119.
Nasal swab, or pharyngeal swab, or 0.2 ml tracheal wash or
bronchoalveolar lavage, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen
types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm
weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack
unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen
specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more
2 business days
Qualitative reverse transcription real time PCR