Feline papillomavirus PCR test
dog and cat assay data sheet
S0198 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of feline papillomavirus by
real time polymerase chain reaction
Papillomaviruses (PVs) are small, non-encapsulated,
epitheliotropic DNA viruses. They infect basal keratinocytes and cause
benign proliferative lesions known as papillomas on the surface of
cutaneous and mucosal tissues. Some strains of papillomavirus are also
associated with the development of epithelial malignancies.
Papillomaviruses are species-specific. Feline
papillomaviruses belong to the lambdapapillomavirus genus and consist
of mucosal and cutaneous types. Papillomavirus infection of domestic
cats (Felis domesticus) has been linked to a number of skin lesions,
such as squamous cell carcinoma, bowenoid in-situ carcinoma, viral
plaques and sarcoids.
Wild felids can also be infected with feline
papillomaviruses; these viruses have been isolated from oral
papillomatous lesions in the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi;
PcPV1), bobcat (Lynx rufus; LrPV1), Asian lion (Panthera leo persica;
PlpPV1), snow leopard (Uncia uncia; UuPV1) and the clouded leopard
(Neofelis nebulosa). Transmission of these viruses is mainly through
Epithelial infections with papillomaviruses are
rarely accompanied by inflammation. Viral infections are non-lytic.
The basal lamina of the epithelium usually remains intact, effectively
allowing viruses to replicate without stimulating innate or adaptive
immune responses from the animals. Additionally, the viruses can
escape immune attack by establishing latent persistent infections,
integrating into the host cell genome, or initiating a multitude of
other defense mechanisms.
Diagnosis of this viral infection is aided by
examination of symptoms or immunohistochemical methods. Serology is
not very sensitive because some infected animals may take 18 months or
more to develop immunological responses following infection.
Confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is highly
sensitive and specific, is useful and rapid (Egberink et al., 2013).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of feline papillomavirus infection
Help ensure that feline groups and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a feline
Minimize human exposure to this virus
Egberink, H., Thiry, E., Möstl, K., Addie, D.,
Belák, S., Boucraut-Baralon, C., Frymus, T., Gruffydd-Jones, T.,
Hosie, M.J., Hartmann, K., Lloret, A., Lutz, H., Marsilio, F.,
Pennisi, M.G., Radford, A.D., Truyen, U., Horzinek, M.C. (2013) Feline
viral papillomatosis: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J.
Feline Med. Surg. 15:560-562.
Lesion swab or scraping, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue, or
0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen
types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm
weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack
unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen
specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR