Canine adenovirus 1 PCR test
dog and cat assay data sheet
adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1)
Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of canine adenovirus
type 1 by real time polymerase chain reaction
hepatitis (ICH) is caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1), a
pathogen closely related to but distinct from canine adenovirus type-2
(CAV-2). CAV-1 is found worldwide and is spread by body fluids
including nasal discharge and urine. The primary mode of transmission
is by direct contact with infected animals. Contaminated runs, cages,
dishes, hands, boots, etc can also serve as a source of transmission.
Infected dogs may
have sore throat, coughing, and occasionally pneumonia. When the virus
enters the bloodstream, it can affect the eyes, liver, and kidneys. As
the liver and kidneys fail, there may be seizures, increased thirst,
vomiting, and/or diarrhea. Dogs with healthy immune systems can fight
the virus by producing antibodies. However, the virus can remain in
the kidneys and be shed in the urine for up to nine months, posing a
threat to other dogs.
of all ages are at risk, but the disease is especially prevalent in
dogs less than one year of age. Death can result as soon as two hours
after the initial signs. Death can be so sudden it may appear as if
the patient was poisoned.
detection of CAV-1 is not reliable because of the possibility of
cross-reacting with closely related virus, such as CAV-2 (Gore et al.,
2005). Molecular detection of CAV-1 nucleic acid by PCR offers a
rapid, sensitive and specific alternative for diagnosing the disease.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal groups and populations are free of
canine adenovirus type 1
Early prevention of spread of CAV-1 among a population
Minimize human exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from susceptible animals
Gore, T.C., Lakshmanan, N., Duncan, K.L., Coyne, M.J., Lum, M.A., and
Sterner, F.J. (2005) Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following
vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and
canine distemper virus. Vet. Ther. 6:5-14.
Nasal swab, conjunctival swab, rectal swab or corneal scraping, or 0.2 ml feces or urine, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD
(yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen
types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm
weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack
unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen
specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR