Canine respiratory coronavirus PCR test
dog and cat assay data sheet
respiratory coronavirus (CCV2, CCoV2 or CRCoV)
S0134 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of canine respiratory
coronavirus type 2 by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain
reaction. This assay does not detect canine enteric coronavirus
coronavirus (CRCoV) is an RNA virus that has recently been classified
as group 2 coronavirus. Sequence analysis shows that this virus is
genetically related to the bovine coronavirus that causes respiratory
infections in cattle and the human coronavirus that causes the "common
cold" in people. However, this virus is genetically distinct from the
group 1 enteric coronavirus
that can cause diarrhea in dogs.
infected with CRCoV usually develop mild symptoms such as coughing,
sneezing, and nasal discharge. Some infected dogs do not develop
clinical signs but shed virus that can infect other dogs. These
carriers are often the source of major outbreaks. Only a small number
of infected dogs will develop pneumonia. From infection to disease
onset may take one or two days to several weeks, depending on whether
the infected dog is also co-infected with other pathogens.
CRCoV is highly contagious and is easily
transmitted via the respiratory route. The likelihood of an outbreak
significantly increases when large numbers of dogs are housed together
in close confinement, such as at boarding/training kennels, shelter
facilities, dog shows and racing kennels. Dogs of all ages and breeds
are susceptible to infection.
Differential diagnosis is important to
differentiate CRCoV from other common pathogens that can cause similar
symptoms in dogs. Diagnosis of CRCoV infection cannot be based solely
on clinical signs because these are very similar to those caused by
other respiratory pathogens. Antigen or culture detection of the virus
in respiratory samples is low in sensitivity and specificity (Erles
and Brownlie, 2005). Molecular detection using PCR is a more effective
means of rapid, sensitive and specific detection of this virus.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of canine respiratory coronavirus infection
Help ensure that canine populations are free of CRCoV
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a canine
facility or population
Minimize human exposure to this virus
and Brownlie, J. (2005) Investigation into the causes of canine
infectious respiratory disease: antibody responses to canine
respiratory coronavirus and canine herpesvirus in two kennelled dog
populations. Arch. Virol. 150:1493-1504.
Nasal swab or throat swab.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen
types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm
weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack
unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen
specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more
2 business days
Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR