African green monkey
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of
replication-competent African green monkey endogenous
retrovirus by reverse transcription coupled real time PCR.
This assay is designed to detect replication-competent AGM
endogenous retrovirus in acellular sample types.
Endogenous retroviral sequences are defective retroviral sequences that
are left from prior infection with retroviruses. These sequences
have been stably integrated in multiple copies in the genomes of
Although the majority of these sequences are defective, some may
produce infectious retroviruses under some circumstances. In
rodents, endogenous retroviruses can be re-activated in animals
as a result of age; or in cell lines, either spontaneously by
long-term culture passage or by treatment with a variety of
inducers, including biological, immunological, and chemical
agents. In humans and nonhman
primates (NHPs), spontaneous release of endogenous retroviruses
has been reported from tumor tissues and cell lines, as well as
from normal placenta. Endogenous retroviruses have also been
isolated from NHP cells by long term cultivation of normal
primary cell cultures and cell lines.
Among the various NHP cell lines, the Vero cell line, which is derived
from the kidney of a normal, adult African green monkey (Chlorocebus species, formerly called
Cercopithecus aethiops), is especially well-known as it is used
broadly in research and virus diagnostics as well as in vaccine
development, due to its broad susceptibility to infection by
different viruses. However, regarding endogenous retrovirus, the
biological safety concern surrounding the use of this cell line
in vaccine or biotherapeutic agent production requires special
attention (Dewannieux et al., 2010).
While viral culture can be used to detect reactivation of endogenous
viruses, the sensitivity of that method is very low. However,
the use of PCR can enhance the detection of these reactivated
endogenous viruses (Fukumoto et al., 2016).
- Safety monitoring of biological products
and vaccines that derive from these animals
Dewannieux, M., Ribet, D. and Heidmann, T. (2010) Risks linked
to endogenous retroviruses for vaccine production: a general
overview. Biologicals 38:366-70.
Fukumoto, H., Hishima, T., Hasegawa, H., Saeki, H., Kuroda, M.
and Katano, H. (2016) Evaluation of Vero-cell-derived simian
endogenous retrovirus infection in humans by detection of viral
genome in clinicopathological samples and commercialized
vaccines and by serology of Japanese general population. Vaccine
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml
cell culture supernatant or other acellular sample.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a
delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate
specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more
stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen
specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit.
See shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business
reverse transcription coupled real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected