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African green monkey endogenous virus


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African green monkey endogenous virus PCR test
primate assay data sheet

African green monkey endogenous retrovirus

Test code:
S0226 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of replication-competent African green monkey endogenous retrovirus by reverse transcription coupled real time PCR. This assay is designed to detect replication-competent AGM endogenous retrovirus in acellular sample types.

Endogenous retroviral sequences are defective retroviral sequences that are left from prior infection with retroviruses. These sequences have been stably integrated in multiple copies in the genomes of all species.

Although the majority of these sequences are defective, some may produce infectious retroviruses under some circumstances. In rodents, endogenous retroviruses can be re-activated in animals as a result of age; or in cell lines, either spontaneously by long-term culture passage or by treatment with a variety of inducers, including biological, immunological, and chemical agents. In humans and nonhman primates (NHPs), spontaneous release of endogenous retroviruses has been reported from tumor tissues and cell lines, as well as from normal placenta. Endogenous retroviruses have also been isolated from NHP cells by long term cultivation of normal primary cell cultures and cell lines.

Among the various NHP cell lines, the Vero cell line, which is derived from the kidney of a normal, adult African green monkey (Chlorocebus species, formerly called Cercopithecus aethiops), is especially well-known as it is used broadly in research and virus diagnostics as well as in vaccine development, due to its broad susceptibility to infection by different viruses. However, regarding endogenous retrovirus, the biological safety concern surrounding the use of this cell line in vaccine or biotherapeutic agent production requires special attention (Dewannieux et al., 2010).

While viral culture can be used to detect reactivation of endogenous viruses, the sensitivity of that method is very low. However, the use of PCR can enhance the detection of these reactivated endogenous viruses (Fukumoto et al., 2016).


  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from these animals

Dewannieux, M., Ribet, D. and Heidmann, T. (2010) Risks linked to endogenous retroviruses for vaccine production: a general overview. Biologicals 38:366-70.

Fukumoto, H., Hishima, T., Hasegawa, H., Saeki, H., Kuroda, M. and Katano, H. (2016) Evaluation of Vero-cell-derived simian endogenous retrovirus infection in humans by detection of viral genome in clinicopathological samples and commercialized vaccines and by serology of Japanese general population. Vaccine 34:2700-2706.

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml cell culture supernatant or other acellular sample.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Ultrasensitive qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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