parainfluenza virus (PIV5, simian virus type 5 or SV5)
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of simian parainfluenza
virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase
Simian virus 5 (SV5) is an
enveloped RNA virus belonging to the genus Rubulavirus of the
subfamily Paramyxovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae,
which consists of negative-strand RNA viruses that have an RNA
genome of approximately 15,000 nucleotides. These viruses
are large, enveloped RNA viruses occurring worldwide in animals
and humans, and are associated with local, usually subclinical,
infections of the respiratory tract.
Four distinct serological parainfluenza types
have been reported and SV5 is classified as a type 2
parainfluenzavirus. Parainfluenza Virus-5 (PIV5) is the
name recently adopted by virologists for this virus.
Immunological studies have shown that sera from guinea
pigs and Syrian hamsters, as well as humans and monkeys,
frequently contain SV5 antibodies.
SV5 was first isolated from
rhesus and cynomolgus monkey kidney-cell cultures and two of the
original monkey isolates are referred to as WR and W3A (Hull et
al., 1956; Choppin, 1964). Thus, nonhuman primates are
considered to be natural hosts for the SV5 viruses. Although
there are no reports showing direct isolation of SV5 from
hamsters or other rodents, there is a high prevalence of SV5
antibodies among hamsters and other rodents. Artificial
inoculation of hamsters with SV5 can result in detectable
presence of SV5 viruses in blood, liver, kidney, brain and
urine. However, the effects of SV5 infection on hamsters and
other rodents are not clear. In primates, infection with the
virus can lead to mild respiratory diseases.
Although PIV5 was originally isolated from cultured primary
monkey cells, its natural host is the dog, in which it may cause
kennel cough. PIV5 can
infect humans, monkeys,
and other mammals (Chatziandreou
et al., 2004) but no known symptoms or diseases in humans
have been associated with PIV5.
Serological surveys have shown that most monkeys and apes
have been exposed to one or more parainfluenza viruses in their
natural habitats. Many infections result in mild or subclinical
manifestations so that they are not detected.
The principal means of transmission of this virus is
through aerosols, although direct contact with infected
secretions is also possible.
Laboratory diagnosis was traditionally done by culture, a slow
and tedious process.
(HAl), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests, and
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have also been used
in the past to detect the presence of this virus. Serological diagnosis requires detection of a rise in antibody
level during the convalescent stage by testing at multiple
timepoints, because most animals are already seropositive due to
previous exposure to various parainfluenza viruses. In addition,
serology may not differentiate various parainfluenza viruses
because of cross-reactivity. PCR, however,
is now becoming more popular
because it can provide a highly
specific, sensitive and rapid means of detection of this virus.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal colonies are free of simian
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a colony
Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that
derive from primates
Chatziandreou, N., Stock, N., Young, D., Andrejeva, J.,
Hagmaier, K., McGeoch, D.J. and Randall, R.E. (2004)
Relationships and host range of human, canine, simian and porcine isolates
of simian virus 5 (parainfluenza virus 5). J. Gen. Virol.
Choppin, P. W. (1964).
Multiplication of a myxovirus (SV5) with minimal cytopathic
effects and without interference. Virology 23:224–233.
Hull, R. N., Minner, J. R. and
Smith, J. W. (1956). New viral agents recovered from tissue
cultures of monkey cells. I. Origin and properties of
cytopathogenic agents SV1, SV2, SV4, SV5, SV6, SV11, SV12 and
SV15. Am. J. Hyg. 63:204–215.
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA
(purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml serum or
plasma, or nasopharyngeal swab or 0.2 ml tracheal wash, or 0.2 ml tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business days
Methodology: Qualitative reverse
transcription coupled real time PCR