Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...


African green monkey endogenous virus


B virus


Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi



Chagas' disease

Chikungunya virus

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis



Cronobacter sakazakii


Cytomegalovirus, baboon

Cytomegalovirus, chimpanzee

Cytomegalovirus, human

Cytomegalovirus, macaque

Cytomegalovirus, simian


E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Encephalitis, Japanese

Encephalitis, St. Louis

Encephalomyocarditis (EMCV)

Entamoeba species


Epstein-Barr virus


Gibbon ape leukemia


Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis C virus

Herpes ateles

Herpes B virus

Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 2

Herpes tamarinus

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus papio 1 & 2

Herpesvirus saimiri

Human adenoviruses

Human herpesviruses types 6, 7 & 8

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2

Human T cell lymphotropic virus

Human Varicella-Zoster

Influenza type A


Lawsonia intracellularis



Lyme disease







Neisseria gonorhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis



Plasmodium species

Reovirus screen

Rhesus rhadinovirus



Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Simian agent 6 (SA6)

Simian agent 8 (SA8)

Simian foamy virus (SFV)

Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHFV)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Simian parainfluenza virus

Simian retrovirus (SRV)

Simian sarcoma virus

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) type 3

Simian Varicella-Zoster

Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes





Toxoplasma gondii



Trypanosoma cruzi



Valley fever

West Nile virus (WNV)


Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Zika virus

* * *

Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Cynomolgus genotyping

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements

Tuberculosis and other mycobacteria PCR tests for primates

primate assay data sheet


Tuberculosis and other mycobacteria

Test codes:

B0015 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ("M.tb") complex by real time polymerase chain reaction. Assay detects but does not differentiate M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. microti. Assay does not detect other mycobacteria. NOTE: THE B0015 TEST IS NOT PERFORMED ON SAMPLES TAKEN FROM RUMINANTS OWNED OR LOCATED IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA.

B0029 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Mycobacterium avium, subspecies avium by real time polymerase chain reaction. Assay does not detect subspecies paratuberculosis or other mycobacteria species.

B0030 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) by real time polymerase chain reaction. Assay does not detect subspecies avium or other mycobacteria species.

B0031 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Mycobacterium intracellulare by real time polymerase chain reaction. Assay does not detect other mycobacteria species.

B0067 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis by real time polymerase chain reaction. Assay does not detect other mycobacteria. NOTE: THE B0067 TEST IS NOT PERFORMED ON SAMPLES TAKEN FROM RUMINANTS OWNED OR LOCATED IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA.

P0006 - Ultrasensitive qualitative mycobacteria screen by real time polymerase chain reaction. Assay detects but does not differentiate a wide range of mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. microti, M. intracellulare, M. avium, M. gastri, M. africanum, M. scrofulaceum, M. ulcerans, M. simiae, M. kansasii, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. marinum, M. genavense, M. szulgai and others.

P0007 - Ultrasensitive qualitative mycobacteria species identification by real time polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. This 2-stage assay detects and differentiates a wide range of mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis/bovis/microti ("M.tb complex"), M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. africanum, M. gastri, M. scrofulaceum, M. ulcerans, M. simiae, M. kansasii, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. marinum, M. genavense, M. szulgai and others. NOTE: THE P0007 TEST IS NOT PERFORMED ON SAMPLES TAKEN FROM RUMINANTS OWNED OR LOCATED IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA.

Many species of mycobacteria can cause disease in primates and other species. Primates acquire classic tuberculosis (TB) by contact with other infected nonhuman primates or humans through inhalation or the digestive route (Moreland, 1970). These infected animals can become reservoirs, causing outbreaks of disease. TB infections have also been reported in many other captive and wildlife species.

The main etiologic agents of TB in primates are Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum and M. microti, and infection by these mycobacteria usually results in pulmonary manifestations and occasionally disseminated disease. Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) have also been implicated in monkey disease, mainly acute and chronic enteropathies and pulmonary infections. Asymptomatic infections by M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. scrofulaceum and M. simiae have also been reported (Calmette et al., 1923; Smith et al., 1973; Renquist and Potkay, 1979; Brammer et al., 1995). Other saprophyte MOTT have also been isolated from primates but are usually not associated with disease.

Clinical diagnosis of TB in primates can be difficult because infected monkeys may only show mild behavioral changes like anorexia and lethargy. Occasionally, infected monkeys may suddenly die while appearing to be in good condition. The use of skin tests to identify infected monkeys is somewhat unreliable because mycobacteria-infected primates, even within the same species, can have a wide range of responses to tuberculin injection, from negative to strong positive reactions. In addition, skin tests perform inconsistently across closely-related primate species, notably the various species of macaques commonly kept in captivity.

Detection of TB and other mycobacterial infections in primates and other species has relied on tuberculin skin response, serological testing, histopathology, microscopy and culture identification. Among these, the most frequently used methods are culture identification and the tuberculin skin test (also known as the PPD, for Purified Protein Derivative), the latter being a routine test in quarantine and preventive medicine protocols (Fowler, 1993). However, the PPD test is not adequately sensitive or specific in many species and the rate of false negatives is high. Culture and associated biochemical tests for the identification of mycobacteria species are slow and painstaking procedures, and require careful collection and preservation of specimens in order to obtain accurate results.

PCR detection of mycobacterial DNA is highly sensitive when proper specimens are carefully collected. Bronchial and gastric lavage can sometimes be useful in antemortem testing in primates, but may not contain detectable mycobacteria even when collected from an infected animal. Tissue samples from necropsy are more likely to contain mycobacteria when properly collected. Small-volume tissue samples should be carefully excised from foci most likely to contain the pathogen -- typically lung or other organ lesions. Lymph node tissue is often most likely to contain detectable mycobacteria, especially if lymph nodes are granulomatous. Acid-fast staining can give a preliminary indication of the possible presence of mycobacteria prior to submission of tissue samples for PCR testing.

In addition to the detection of a number of mycobacteria species by real time PCR, identification of mycobacteria to the species level can often be accomplished rapidly through sequence analysis of PCR products. Ultrasensitive detection of mycobacteria by PCR and subsequent sequence analysis not only allows reliable detection of various species of mycobacteria but in many cases also enables identification of mycobacteria at the species level.


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal colonies are free of tuberculosis or other disease-causing mycobacteria
  • Early prevention of spread of mycobacteria among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to disease-causing mycobacteria
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from primates

Brammer, D.W., O’Rourke, C.M., Heath, L.A., Chrisp, C.E., Peter, G.K. and Hofing, G.L. (1995) Mycobacterium kansasii infection in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus sciureus). J. Med. Primatol. 24: 231-235.
Calmette, A., Smith, G.H. and Soper, W.B.(1923) Tubercle Bacillus Infection and Tuberculosis in Man and Animals, Processes of Infection and Resistance, vol. Xxiii. Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 689 pp.
Fowler, M.E. (1993) Zoo & Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 3rd ed., vol. xxv. Saunders, Philadelphia, 617 pp.
Moreland, A.F. (1970) Tuberculosis in New World primates. Lab. Anim. Care 20: 262-264.
Renquist, D.M. and Potkay, S. (1979) Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection in Erythrocebus patas monkeys. Lab. Anim. Sci. 29: 97-101.
Smith, E.K., Hunt, R.D., Garcia, F.G., Fraser, C.E., Merkal, R.S., Karlson, A.G. (1973) Avian tuberculosis in monkeys. A unique mycobacterial infection. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 107: 469-471.

Preferred specimen: 0.2 ml lymph node, granuloma or lesion tissue (fresh or frozen).

Less preferred specimen: Fixed tissue (but tissue samples for P0006 or P0007 should be fresh or frozen, not fixed), or 0.2 ml bronchoalveolar lavage or gastric lavage, or 0.2 ml feces, or fecal swab.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days (5 business days for P0007).

B0015, B0029, B0030, B0031, B0067 and P0006 - Qualitative real time PCR
P0007 - Qualitative real time PCR and PCR amplicon sequencing

Normal range: Nondetected

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