Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...


African green monkey endogenous virus


B virus


Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi



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Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis



Cronobacter sakazakii


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Influenza type A


Lawsonia intracellularis



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Simian agent 6 (SA6)

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Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

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Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes





Toxoplasma gondii



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Valley fever

West Nile virus (WNV)


Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Zika virus

* * *

Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Cynomolgus genotyping

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements

Yellow fever PCR test for primates
primate assay data sheet

Yellow fever

Test code: S0081 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of yellow fever virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction.

Yellow fever occurs frequently in tropical regions of Africa and South America. The virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus (Monath and Heinz, 1996). Mosquitos carry the virus from one host to another, primarily between monkeys, from monkeys to humans, and from person to person. Transmission to humans commonly occurs in forest transition zones; the disease may enter into populated urban areas through the spread of the mosquito vector. Many tropical cities are now facing yellow fever epidemics because of unhygienic living conditions allowing mosquitos to breed there.

Patients infected with yellow fever virus can develop acute onset of fever followed by jaundice within two weeks of onset of first symptoms and bleeding from nose, gums, skin, or gastrointestinal tract. Death may occur within 3 weeks of onset of severe illness. Up to 50% of severely affected patients die from yellow fever. There is no cure for yellow fever; treatment is palliative only.

Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose, especially during the early stages. It can be confused with severe malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis, viral hepatitis, hemorrhagic fevers and other diseases, as well as poisoning.

Traditional laboratory methods of diagnosing yellow fever include culture isolation of the yellow fever virus; or the presence of yellow fever specific IgM; or a four-fold or greater rise in serum IgG levels (acute or convalescent); or positive post-mortem liver histopathology; or detection of yellow fever viral antigen in tissues by immunohistochemistry.  More recently, the detection of yellow fever virus genomic sequences in blood or organs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a useful diagnostic tool. Diagnosis by PCR is now often preferred because of its speed, high specificity and sensitivity.


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of yellow fever
  • Help ensure that primate colonies are free of yellow fever virus
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus
  • Minimize personnel exposure to this virus

Monath TP, Heinz FX (1996) Flaviviruses. In Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM et al. (eds): ‘‘Fields Virology.’’ Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Press Publishers, pp 961–1034.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml serum or plasma, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions. For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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