Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...


African green monkey endogenous virus


B virus


Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi



Chagas' disease

Chikungunya virus

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis



Cronobacter sakazakii


Cytomegalovirus, baboon

Cytomegalovirus, chimpanzee

Cytomegalovirus, human

Cytomegalovirus, macaque

Cytomegalovirus, simian


E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Encephalitis, Japanese

Encephalitis, St. Louis

Encephalomyocarditis (EMCV)

Entamoeba species


Epstein-Barr virus


Gibbon ape leukemia


Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis C virus

Herpes ateles

Herpes B virus

Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 2

Herpes tamarinus

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus papio 1 & 2

Herpesvirus saimiri

Human adenoviruses

Human herpesviruses types 6, 7 & 8

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2

Human T cell lymphotropic virus

Human Varicella-Zoster

Influenza type A


Lawsonia intracellularis



Lyme disease







Neisseria gonorhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis



Plasmodium species

Reovirus screen

Rhesus rhadinovirus



Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Simian agent 6 (SA6)

Simian agent 8 (SA8)

Simian foamy virus (SFV)

Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHFV)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Simian parainfluenza virus

Simian retrovirus (SRV)

Simian sarcoma virus

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) type 3

Simian Varicella-Zoster

Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes





Toxoplasma gondii



Trypanosoma cruzi



Valley fever

West Nile virus (WNV)


Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Zika virus

* * *

Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Cynomolgus genotyping

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements

Enterovirus PCR test for primates
primate assay data sheet


Test code:
S0058 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of enterovirus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction


The enteroviruses (EVs) are among the most common and most important viral pathogens of humans, and EVs also infect nonhuman primates. The EVs comprise 67 distinct serotypes within the family Picornaviridae. Most EV infections are asymptomatic. For symptomatic patients, the most common manifestation of EV infection may only be a nonspecific febrile illness with or without a rash. This so-called viral syndrome is one of the most common causes of fever among human children. Infected patients often develop upper respiratory symptoms very similar to illness caused by rhinoviruses in the winter months, making diagnosis very difficult.

Enteroviruses are the most common cause of meningitis in humans in the United States. It is also likely that EV infection in primates is a major cause of aseptic meningitis. Diagnosis of EV meningitis can be difficult, especially in young infant primates, because meningitis due to bacterial and other viral infection can present very similar symptoms. Even though EV meningitis is often benign in outcome and no specific therapy is indicated, EV-infected animals may be given unnecessary antibiotic and antiviral therapies due to misdiagnosis.

Laboratory diagnosis of enteroviruses is traditionally performed by viral culture and recognition of cytopathic effects, requiring a high degree of expertise and labor. Some EV serotypes, particularly within the coxsackievirus A group, do not grow at all in cell culture. Of greater concern is that 25 to 35% of specimens from human patients with characteristic EV infections are negative by cell culture (Chonmaitree et al., 1988) because of antibody neutralization in situ. Even though some EVs may grow in cell culture, they often grow very slowly, sometimes taking a week or more before any cytopathic effect can be observed.

Serological testing of EVs is not practical because there is no commonly shared antigen among the different EV serotypes (Herrmann et al., 1979). Detection of EVs using a molecular approach provides the best opportunity for rapid diagnosis of EVs in primates, because consensus sequences among different serotypes of EVs are available in the untranslated regions of EVs. Enterovirus detection by PCR over these consensus sequences thus provides the most rapid, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of this infection. The technique also helps eliminate false negative diagnoses.


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal colonies are free of Enteroviruses
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to the virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from primates

Chonmaitree, T., Ford, C., Sanders, C. and Lucia, H.L. (1988) Comparison of cell culture for rapid isolation of enteroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:2576-2580.
Herrmann, J.E., Hendry, R.M. and Collins, F. (1979) Factors involved in enzyme-linked immunoassay of viruses and evaluation of the method for identification of enteroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 210-217.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml CSF, urine, plasma, serum or nasal wash, or rectal swab, or throat swab, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

2003-2023 Zoologix, Inc. • Email Zoologix • Phone (818) 717-8880