detection of Ureaplasma
urealyticum by polymerase chain reaction
is an inhabitant of the normal human genital tract and is found
in 65–80% of sexually active men and women.
U. urealyticum is
sexually transmitted and is frequently recognized as a cause of
non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis in men and women.
Additionally, U. urealyticum
is the etiological agent of a serious infection of newborns that
can cause either a severe respiratory disease in utero or mild
or severe meningitis. Moreover,
U. urealyticum is
associated with infertility, altered sperm motility, low birth
weight, chorioamnioitis, spontaneous abortions, and still and
premature births. Ureaplasmal involvement is also suspected in
cases of prostatitis, epididymitis, urinary calculi and
suppurative arthritis associated with hypogammaglobulinemia.
is difficult to culture. Although highly purified EIA antigens
are available now to permit detection of antibodies specific to
without cross-reactivity to other non-ureaplasmal antibodies,
this method cannot be applied to different sample types. For
example, Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma CNS infections of newborns
are not characterized serologically or by intrathecal synthesis
of specific IgG (Waites et al., 1988; Shaw et al., 1989).
Detection of this microorganism by PCR is more sensitive than
culture (~95% vs. 91%) and is much faster (~24 hrs. vs. ~5 days)
(Abele-Horn et al., 1996; Teng et al., 1994). In patients with
arthritis, PCR techniques afford rapid, specific diagnosis (Meignan,
1997; Xavier Puéchal et al., 1995).
U. urealyticum is
one of the most frequent causes of male infertility, stillbirth
and pre-mature birth, reducing the spread of this infection is
critical in successful breeding program of non-human primates.
Rapid and accurate diagnosis using PCR technique is therefore an
important monitoring tool of nonhuman primates for this
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal colonies are free of
Early prevention of spread of the bacteria among a
Minimize personnel exposure to the bacteria
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from primates
Abele-Horn, M., Wolff, C., Dressel, P., Zimmermann, A.,
Vahlensieck, W., Pfaff, F. and Ruckdeschel, G. (1996).
Polymerase chain reaction versus culture for detection of
Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in the urogenital
tract of adults and the respiratory tract of newborns. Eur. J.
Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:595-598.
Meignan F. (1997)Ureaplasma
urealyticum is an underrecognized cause of reactive arthritis.
Rev. Rhum. Engl. Ed. 64:595-596.
Shaw, N.J., Pratt, B.C. and
Weindling, A.M. (1989) Ureaplasma and mycoplasma infections of
the central nervous system in preterm infants Lancet
Teng, K., Li, M., Yu, W., Li, H., Sen, D. and
Liu, D. (1994) Comparison of PCR with culture for detection of
Ureaplasma urealyticum in clinical samples from patients with
urogenital infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:2232-2234.
Waites, K.B., Rudd, P.T., Crouse, D.T., Canupp, K.C., Nelson,
K.G., Ramsey, C. and Cassell G.H. (1988) Chronic Ureaplasma
urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infections of central nervous
system in preterm infants. Lancet 1:17-21.
X., Hilliquin, P., Renoux, M., Menkés, C.J., Renaudin, H. and
Bébéar, C. (1995) Ureaplasma urealyticum destructive septic
polyarthritis revealing a common variable immunodeficiency.
Arthritis. Rheum. 38:1524-1527.
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml semen, amniotic fluid or CSF, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or
fixed tissue, or vaginal swab or culture.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days