Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...


African green monkey endogenous virus


B virus


Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi



Chagas' disease

Chikungunya virus

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis



Cronobacter sakazakii


Cytomegalovirus, baboon

Cytomegalovirus, chimpanzee

Cytomegalovirus, human

Cytomegalovirus, macaque

Cytomegalovirus, simian


E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Encephalitis, Japanese

Encephalitis, St. Louis

Encephalomyocarditis (EMCV)

Entamoeba species


Epstein-Barr virus


Gibbon ape leukemia


Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis C virus

Herpes ateles

Herpes B virus

Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 2

Herpes tamarinus

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus papio 1 & 2

Herpesvirus saimiri

Human adenoviruses

Human herpesviruses types 6, 7 & 8

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2

Human T cell lymphotropic virus

Human Varicella-Zoster

Influenza type A


Lawsonia intracellularis



Lyme disease







Neisseria gonorhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis



Plasmodium species

Reovirus screen

Rhesus rhadinovirus



Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Simian agent 6 (SA6)

Simian agent 8 (SA8)

Simian foamy virus (SFV)

Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHFV)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Simian parainfluenza virus

Simian retrovirus (SRV)

Simian sarcoma virus

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) type 3

Simian Varicella-Zoster

Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes





Toxoplasma gondii



Trypanosoma cruzi



Valley fever

West Nile virus (WNV)


Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Zika virus

* * *

Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Cynomolgus genotyping

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements

Monkeypox PCR test for primates
primate assay data sheet


Test code:
S0025 - Qualitative detection of monkeypox virus (MPV) by polymerase chain reaction


Monkeypox virus (MPV) is an orthopoxvirus that is genetically distinct from other members of the Poxviridae family, including the variola, vaccinia, ectromelia, camelpox, and cowpox viruses. It was first identified as the cause of a pox-like illness in captive monkeys at the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen in 1958. Currently, MPV is regarded as the most important orthopoxvirus infection in human beings since the eradication of smallpox. By contrast with variola virus, however, MPV has a wide range of hosts, which has allowed it to maintain a reservoir in wild animals while sporadically causing human disease, and has precluded its global eradication by human vaccination.

Serological surveys suggest that many animals are infected with MPV under natural conditions, including squirrels, non-human primates, and rats. Human monkeypox attracted little attention worldwide until May, 2003, when the CDC received reports from midwestern USA of patients who developed fever and a rash after close contact with pet prairie dogs and other mammals. This outbreak, with a total of 81 identified cases (40% laboratory confirmed), was due to human monkeypox, a disease that had previously never been recorded in the western hemisphere. Traceback investigations identified an international shipment of about 800 small mammals from Ghana to Texas as the probable source for the introduction of MPV into the USA. Gambian giant rats from this shipment were transported from Texas via an Iowa animal vendor to a pet distributor in the Chicago area, where they were co- LOCATED with prairie dogs (Cynomus spp). Infected prairie dogs were subsequently transported from the distributor to a vendor in Wisconsin, where they were sold to the index patient and others. Infected prairie dogs, which through a non-linear chain of distribution may have also been sold at "swap meets" in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, have been implicated as the source of primary infection for most of the US cases.

Although virus isolation can be used to diagnose monkeypox virus infection, a long incubation period is required to obtain results. Viral culture also increases the potential risk of laboratory personnel contacting this virus. Furthermore, viral culture is less sensitive, reliable and specific than polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Serological testing for MPVantigens is difficult because of the close antigenic relation between surface antigens among the orthopoxviruses. Various serological methods are available, including a virus-neutralising test with hyperimmune reference sera, a haemagglutination-inhibition assay with chicken erythrocytes, and detection of specific viral antibodies. The sensitivities of these tests vary (50–95%), however, and serological tests are not useful for the diagnosis of acute infection. Expert opinion is that no serological assay currently available can reliably diagnose orthopoxvirus infections with high sensitivity.

Monkeypox detection by PCR is the most rapid, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of this infection.


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal colonies are free of MPV
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from monkeys

Specimen requirement: Lesion scab or vesicle fluid swab.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodologies: Qualitative PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

2003-2023 Zoologix, Inc. • Email Zoologix • Phone (818) 717-8880