Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...


African green monkey endogenous virus


B virus


Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi



Chagas' disease

Chikungunya virus

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis



Cronobacter sakazakii


Cytomegalovirus, baboon

Cytomegalovirus, chimpanzee

Cytomegalovirus, human

Cytomegalovirus, macaque

Cytomegalovirus, simian


E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Encephalitis, Japanese

Encephalitis, St. Louis

Encephalomyocarditis (EMCV)

Entamoeba species


Epstein-Barr virus


Gibbon ape leukemia


Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis C virus

Herpes ateles

Herpes B virus

Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 2

Herpes tamarinus

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus papio 1 & 2

Herpesvirus saimiri

Human adenoviruses

Human herpesviruses types 6, 7 & 8

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2

Human T cell lymphotropic virus

Human Varicella-Zoster

Influenza type A


Lawsonia intracellularis



Lyme disease







Neisseria gonorhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis



Plasmodium species

Reovirus screen

Rhesus rhadinovirus



Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Simian agent 6 (SA6)

Simian agent 8 (SA8)

Simian foamy virus (SFV)

Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHFV)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Simian parainfluenza virus

Simian retrovirus (SRV)

Simian sarcoma virus

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) type 3

Simian Varicella-Zoster

Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes





Toxoplasma gondii



Trypanosoma cruzi



Valley fever

West Nile virus (WNV)


Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Zika virus

* * *

Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Cynomolgus genotyping

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements

Malaria PCR tests for primates
primate assay data sheet


Test codes:

X0014 - Ultrasensitive qualitative screen for Plasmodium species by real time PCR. This assay detects but does not differentiate most malaria-causing Plasmodium species, including P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi, P. fieldi, P. hylobati, P. juxtanucleare, P. yoelii, P. brasilianum, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, P. schwetzi, P. reichenowi, P. eyles, P.jefferyi, P. youngi, P. pitheci, P. silvaticum, P. coatneyi, P. fragile, P. simiovale, P. gonderi, P. simium, P. cathemerium, P. gallinaceum, P. elongatum, and P. relictum.

X0012 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Plasmodium inui by real time PCR. This assay does not detect other Plasmodium species.


Malaria in primates is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are transmitted by infected Anopheles mosquitos. As the infected female mosquito takes a blood meal, it injects the parasite, which travels in the bloodstream to the liver. Inside the liver, the organism undergoes several developmental changes leading to the release of a large number of merozoites. These merozoites invade the red blood cells. The asexual stages often seen in blood films are young trophozoites (also known as “ring forms”), mature trophozoites, and the dividing schizonts that yield the merozoites for a new generation. The liver then acts as a reservoir from which periodic bouts of parasitemia may emanate.

Species of Plasmodium that infect old world primates include P. schwetzi, P. reichenowi, P. eyles, P.jefferyi, P. youngi, P. hylobati, P. pitheci, P. silvaticum, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, P. fieldi, P. coatneyi, P. knowlesi, P. fragile, P. simiovale and P. gonderi (Cogswell, 2000). In New World monkeys, only P. brasilianum and P. simium have been detected. Monkeys infected with these parasites are usually subclinical, making identification of carriers extremely difficult. Only when carriers are immunosuppressed or splenectomized will they develop jaundice, anorexia, listlessness, fever and anemia.  Splenomegaly may occur in immunosuppressed spleen-intact animals. Parasitemia in infected animals can fluctuate dramatically over short periods, so Plasmodium screening should be performed at multiple time points. In particular, stress or other immune-suppressive events may trigger an increase in parasitemia from previously undetectable levels. Therefore it is ideal when feasible to screen using liver or spleen biopsy, because the titer of Plasmodium organisms is more consistently detectable in these tissues than in peripheral blood.

Traditionally, malaria screening and diagnosis relied on microscopic examination of blood smears. This method is fast and cheap but has a very low sensitivity. Successful detection in blood smears also depends on collecting the specimen at the peak of the parasitemia. Antibody detection can be used to diagnose the disease but paired serum samples several weeks apart are required in order to identify actively infected animals, making rapid diagnosis impossible. Furthermore, most serology testing currently available targets the Plasmodium species that infect humans, such as P. malariae, P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale. Reagents used for these human serology tests are not appropriate for screening nonhuman primates. Molecular detection by PCR is a rapid, specific and sensitive method for accurately diagnosing and identifying carriers.


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal colonies are free of malaria
  • Early prevention of spread of malaria among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to malaria
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from primates

Cogswell, F.B. (2000) Malaria and Piroplasms of non-human primates. In: Companion and Exotic Animal Parasitology, Bowman D.D. (Ed). A0304.0600.

Preferred specimen: 0.2 ml liver or spleen tissue.

Less preferred specimen: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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