primate genetic test data sheet
PCR identification of
A/B/AB blood type in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques
Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are the nonhuman primates most
commonly used in biomedical research. For some research, such as
transfusion and transplantation studies, it is important to know
whether the blood types of donor and recipient animals are
Both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques can possess A, B or AB blood
types. While it is generally thought that the O allele seen in
humans does not exist in macaques, one study by
Malaivijitnond et al. (2008) did report some presence of the O
allele in both rhesus and cynomolgus macaque populations.
However, the sample size in that study was very small and the
samples were collected solely in Thailand, so the result may not
be representative of other populations. The O allele has not
been reported by other groups for these species.
In nonhuman primates, including rhesus and cynomolgus macaques,
the A and B antigens are not present on the surfaces
of red blood cells as they are in humans, but rather are found
in secretions such as saliva. This lack of antigen on the
surface of red blood cells prevents conventional forward typing
from blood samples in these macaques, although typing can be
performed using saliva samples. Reverse typing of serum or
plasma may also be performed. However, both methods demand a
substantial amount of fresh blood and saliva.
Blood typing by PCR, on the other hand, requires only a small
amount of DNA from the animal, and the DNA can be isolated from
various sample types, including blood.
Determine blood type in cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis)
and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) macaques
Malaivijitnond, S., Sae-Low, W. and Hamada, Y. (2008) The
human-ABO blood groups of free-ranging long-tailed macaques
(Macaca fascicularis) and parapatric rhesus macaques (M.
mulatta) in Thailand. J. Med. Primatol. 37:31-37.
Specimen requirements: 0.2
ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube. Ship blood samples on the
same day collected, on cold paks but not frozen, in an insulated
container, via standard overnight service, for weekday delivery
to Zoologix. Collect blood samples using a larger-gauge needle,
and put the samples immediately in EDTA to avoid
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 5 business days
Methodology: Real time PCR
Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)
Normal range: A, B or AB blood type