avian & livestock assay data sheet
Test code: B0099
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of
pleuropneumoniae by real time polymerase chain reaction.
pleuropneumoniae, previously known as Haemophilus
pleuropneumoniae, causes respiratory infection of swine.
There are at least twelve different strains, some of which are
non-pathogenic, but others can cause severe disease symptoms.
Strains 1, 5, 9, 11 and 12 are highly virulent, while strains 3
and 6 cause mild disease symptoms. The organism shows affinity
for the tonsils and respiratory tract of infected animals. The
incubation period is usually very short, from as little as 12
hours to 3 days. Infected animals can spread the bacteria
through respiratory aerosols, and the bacteria can survive in
discharges, serum, and tissues for up to 5 days.
The major threat of this bacterial infection is that some pigs can carry
the bacteria without any clinical signs. Young piglets with
poorly developed immune system are particularly susceptible to
infection. Once piglets are infected, rapid onset of pneumonia
can occur and may result in hemorrhagic pneumonia. Prior to
death or just after death, it is common to see blood coming from
the nasal cavity of pigs. Postmortem examination can reveal
characteristic lesions: large areas of hemorrhage in the dorsal
lobes of the lungs. Lesions of this type and location do not
commonly result from other infections - most other microbial
infections cause lesions in the lower lung lobes, or throughout
the lungs without hemorrhage.
The ability to detect these bacteria in subclinically infected herds is
essential for control of the disease. Serology, and both
standard and immunomagnetic separation-based (IMS) bacterial
isolation methods, have sometimes been used for this purpose.
Serological monitoring is cheap but it has limitations: infected
pigs may be serologically negative, and sometimes, inconclusive
serological results may be observed in the absence of clinical
signs or pathological lesions. Culture identification of the
organism or antigen detection by immunological methods usually
has very low sensitivity. However, molecular detection by PCR is
rapid, sensitive and specific, and is an important alternative
to traditional methods in identifying these bacteria (Frey, J.,
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that swine herds are free of
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bacteria
Early prevention of spread of the bacteria among a herd
Minimize human exposure to the bacteria
Frey, J. (2003) Detection, identification, and subtyping of
pleuropneumoniae. Methods Mol. Biol. 216:87-95.
Nasopharyngeal swab, or environmental swab, or 0.2 ml whole blood
in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml serum,
or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR