avian & livestock genetic test data sheet
Swine blood typing by PCR
- Swine A/O blood typing by Polymerase Chain
Xenotransplantation of pig organs into humans can save the lives
of patients suffering from acute organ failure. Selection of
xenotransplantation pigs having blood group O can help control
acute immune rejection due to differences in blood groups.
In humans, three major alleles (A, B and O) determine blood
type. While alleles A and B code for different functional
transferases, allele O codes for a non-functional protein.
In pigs there are only A and O alleles, so there can only be two
blood types, A and O. Genetic analysis has shown that the
porcine A gene is homologous to the ABO genes in humans and
other species. It encodes an α1→ 3
N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase that synthesizes A
antigens. However, in blood group O pigs, there is a major
deletion in the O gene so that it cannot encode a functional
In the past, blood typing for swine relied on human serological
reagents to cross-react with pig blood group antigens. This
method can lead to false results, due to differences in antigen
structure between pig and human. PCR blood typing designed
specifically for swine enables highly specific results (Yeom et
Identify pigs’ blood type
Enable breeding of pig colonies with specific blood groups
Initial evaluation of pig organs for xenotransplantation
Yeom, S.C., Oh, B.C., Cho, S.Y., Park, C.G., Lee, B.C. and Lee,
Investigation of blood typing method for Seoul National
University miniature pig. Transplant Proc. 41:1921-1926.
Specimen requirements: 0.2
ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or
0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 3 business days
AA, AO or OO blood type