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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

AMPKγ3R200Q mutation in pigs

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Aujeszky's disease

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Avibacterium paragallinarum

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine endogenous retrovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea type 1

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Camelpox

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydia/Chlamydophila genus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coccidiodes

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

Ebola Reston

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza type A

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Lawsonia intracellularis

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Malignant hyperthermia in pigs

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma species

Mycoplasma suis

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine hemorrhagic enteropathy

Porcine intestinal adenomatosis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

RyR1 R615C mutation in pigs

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Taenia solium

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichinella spiralis

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Valley fever

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Ebola Reston PCR test
avian & livestock assay data sheet

Ebola virus

Test code:
S0059 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Ebola virus (including Reston, Mayibout, Mavinga, Zaire, Gabon, Sudan, and Cote d'Ivoire strains) by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction

 

Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a clinical syndrome caused by a number of different viruses. These viruses include members of the Filoviridae family (Marburg virus [MBGV] and Ebola virus [EBOV]), Arenaviridae family (Lassa virus [LASV] and Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Guanarito viruses), Bunyaviridae family (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus [CCHFV], Rift Valley fever virus [RVFV], and Hanta viruses), and Flaviviridae family (yellow fever virus [YFV] and dengue virus [DENV]). The natural reservoirs of these viruses are arthropods, ticks, and rodents but the reservoir of filoviruses is not known.

Infections by these hemorrhagic viruses can result in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations such as diarrhea, myalgia, cough, headache, pneumonia, encephalopathy, and hepatitis. Hemorrhage is the characteristic manifestation, although nonhemorrhagic infections are also common. The mortality rate of VHF infection is very high. Filoviruses, arenaviruses, and CCHFV are of particular relevance because they can be transmitted from human to human, thus causing epidemics with high mortality rates.

Among the VHF viruses, Ebola virus (EBOV) is of great concern as several outbreaks of this viral infection have been reported (Volchkov et al., 1997). This virus can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates. Outbreaks such as the latest ones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MBGV) and Uganda (EBOV) are unpredictable and pose considerable public health concern to the affected as well as neighboring countries. In April 1996, laboratory testing of imported nonhuman primates (as mandated by quarantine regulations) identified 2 cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with Ebola (subtype Reston) virus in a US-registered quarantine facility (Rollin et al., 1999). The animals were part of a shipment of 100 nonhuman primates imported from the Philippines. Two additional infected animals, thought to be in the incubation phase, were also identified among the remaining 48 animals in the affected quarantine room.

Recent studies have found that Ebola Reston can infect pigs, and there is concern that pigs could serve as an interim or amplifying host for ebolaviruses (Haddock et al., 2020).

The clinical syndrome of EBOV hemorrhagic fever is characterized by generalized fluid distribution problems, hypotension, coagulation disorders, variable degrees of hemorrhage, and widespread focal tissue destruction. Morphological studies on postmortem material indicate that mononuclear phagocytic cells are the primary targets for filovirus replication. There are two species of EBOV: the Zaire species shows the highest mortality in humans, whereas the Reston species may be apathogenic, based on very limited data.

In the absence of bleeding or organ manifestation, VHF is clinically difficult to diagnose, and the various etiologic agents of VHF can hardly be differentiated by clinical tests. The definitive diagnosis of a VHF relies mainly on laboratory testing and it is important to identify the causative viral agent to initiate the appropriate treatment and infection control procedures. Serological testing of EBOVs is not practical because patients usually die before developing antibodies, necessitating rapid virus detection. Detection of EBOVs using a molecular biology approach provides the best alternative for rapid diagnosis of EBOV.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal colonies are free of Ebola virus
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to the virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from primates

References:
Leroy EM, Baize S, Lu CY, McCormick JB, Georges AJ, Georges-Courbot MC, Lansoud-Soukate J, Fisher-Hoch SP. (2000) Diagnosis of Ebola haemorrhagic fever by RT-PCR in an epidemic setting. J. Med. Virol. 2000 60:463-7.
Rollin, P.E., Williams, R.J., Bressler, D.S., Pearson, S., Cottingham, M., Pucak, G., Sanchez, A., Trappier, S.G., Peters, R.L., Greer, P.W., Zaki, S., Demarcus, T., Hendricks, K., Kelley, M., Simpson, D., Geisbert, T.W., Jahrling, P.B., Peters, C.J. and Ksiazek, T.G.(1999) Ebola (subtype Reston) virus among quarantined nonhuman primates recently imported from the Philippines to the United States. J. Infect. Dis.. 179 Suppl 1:S108-14.
Volchkov, V., Volchkova, V., Eckel, C., Klenk, H.D., Bouloy, M., LeGuenno, B. and Feldmann, H. (1997) Emergence of subtype Zaire Ebola virus in Gabon. Virology 232:139-44
Haddock, E. et al. (2020) Reston virus causes severe respiratory disease in young domestic pigs. PNAS DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015657118.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml plasma or serum.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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