& livestock assay data sheet
Bovine herpesvirus 4
- Ultrasensitive detection of bovine herpesvirus type 4 by real time PCR
Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV 4) belongs to genus
Rhadinovirus of subfamily
gammaherpesvirinae in the
Ruminants infected by BHV 4 may develop respiratory or ocular clinical
symptoms, such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, tracheitis, or even
pneumonia. Skin damage, gastrointestinal problems and genital
disorders have also been reported to be associated with
infection by this virus. In female animals, the virus causes
vulvovaginitis, abortion and endometritis; in male animals, the
virus causes epididymitis or orchitis. However, some infected
animals may have no clinical symptoms, and only some strains of
the virus are pathogenic in cattle.
Infection can result in
latent infection, with reactivation caused by poor hygiene or
rearing practices, or other stressors.
Because infection with this virus can lead to concurrent or subsequent
bacterial metritis, large economic loss may result due to death,
delayed breeding and infertility, discarded milk from antibiotic
therapy, and decreased milk production.
Serological detection is not suitable to determine animals’ immune status
because seroprevalence of this virus is high, and also the
serology test may not be able to detect latent infections.
Molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is rapid,
sensitive and specific, and can detect some latent infections
(Peshev and Christova, 2013).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Identify BHV4 virus carriers
Help ensure that herds are free of
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Peshev, R. and Christova, L. (2013) Bovine herpes virus 4 (BHV4)
infection induced by stress in imported cows. Revue Méd. Vét.
whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or
lesion swab or scab, or 0.2 ml
milk, or nasal or conjunctival swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See
for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR