& livestock assay data sheet
Rift Valley fever
NOTE: THIS TEST IS NOT PERFORMED
ON SAMPLES TAKEN FROM ANIMALS OWNED OR LOCATED IN THE STATE OF
- Ultrasensitive detection of Rift Valley fever virus by reverse
transcription coupled real time PCR
Rift Valley fever virus
(RVFV) belongs to the genus
Phlebovirus in the family
bunyaviridae. Viruses in this family are
enveloped negative single-stranded RNA viruses. All bunyaviruses
have an outer lipid envelope with two glycoproteins - G(N) and
G(C) - necessary for cell entry.
The virus mainly affects
domesticated animals such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and
camels. However, the virus also can infect and cause illness in
humans. The virus is transmitted through mosquitoes, as well as
through direct contact with the tissue of infected animals. Two
mosquito species - Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Aedes
vexans - are known to transmit the virus, but there are also
other potential vectors, such as Aedes caspius.
Human infections are
mainly through direct contact with tissues of infected animals.
The virus has also been isolated from two bat species: the
Peter's epauletted fruit bat (Micropteropus pusillus) and
the aba roundleaf bat (Hipposideros abae), which are
believed to be reservoirs for the virus.
The virus is generally
found in regions of eastern and southern Africa where sheep and
cattle are raised, but the virus exists in most of sub-Saharan
Africa, including West Africa and Madagascar. Epizootic
outbreaks of the disease increase the likelihood of contact
between diseased animals and humans, which could lead to human
mortality. Infected humans can develop hemorrhagic fever, ocular
disease and/or encephalitis. However, some infected humans may
only show minor symptoms.
The disease has
traditionally been diagnosed through clinical observation, virus
isolation or ELISA, but none of these methods is very sensitive.
Molecular detection by PCR is a highly sensitive, specific and
rapid alternative to the traditional methods.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Identify Rift Valley fever virus carriers
Help ensure that herds and animal populations are free of
Rift Valley fever
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Mwaengo, D., Lorenzo,
G., Iglesias, J., Warigia, M., Sang, R., Bishop, R.P. and Brun,
Detection and identification of Rift Valley fever virus in
mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time PCR. Virus
whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh
or frozen tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See
for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative reverse transcription real time PCR