avian & livestock assay data sheet
B0064 - Qualitative detection of
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale by polymerase chain reaction
included in the poultry
is a slow
growing, pleomorphic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.
Infected poultry show variable symptoms, and the severity of the
disease is influenced by environmental factors such as poor
management, inadequate ventilation, high stocking density, poor
litter conditions, poor hygiene and concurrent infections. O.
rhinotracheale is associated with high economic losses in
poultry due to increased mortality and condemnation rates,
decreased egg production or decreased performance.
features of O. rhinotracheale infection include
relatively mild respiratory signs in young birds, usually
beginning with sneezing accompanied by slightly increased
mortality and poor performance. Symptoms can disappear within
one week but may worsen if the birds are co-infected with other
pathogens. Upon post mortem examination, foamy white exudate may
be seen in the air sacs.
can also cause
sudden death in young birds through brain infection, or skull
infection which causes a weakening of the skull bones. This type
of O. rhinotracheale infection may occur with or without
the above-mentioned respiratory symptoms.
poultry and wild birds, suggesting a broad potential reservoir
in the environment. Many wild birds and poultry thus may have
been exposed to the bacteria. All over the world,
maternally-derived antibodies against O. rhinotracheale
can be detected in eggs and day-old birds.
Infection with O.rhinotracheale
can easily be confused with other viral or bacterial infections. Although
antibodies to the bacteria can be detected by serology testing
shortly after the start of an infection, the antibody titers
decline rapidly after peaking. In addition, very young birds may
carry maternal antibodies so that serology testing will be
unable to determine their infectious state. Finally, serology
testing is affected by serotype differences, so some serotypes
may be missed by commercial kits. Molecular detection is a
rapid, specific and sensitive technique for detection of
O. rhinotracheale (Empel
and Hafez, 1999).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of O.
Help ensure that bird populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of this bacterium among a
Minimize human exposure to
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Empel P.C.M.V and Hafez H. M. (1999)
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale: a review. Avian Pathol. 28:
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days