& livestock assay data sheet
Vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV)
- Ultrasensitive detection of vesicular exanthema of swine virus by reverse transcription
coupled real time PCR
Vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) is a calicivirus. There are 13
serotypes of VESV and the virus is closely related to at least
14 other calicivirus serotypes found in the San Miguel sea lion
virus (SMSV) group. Many SMSVs have been shown to cause
vesicular disease when they are experimentally inoculated into
Low levels of antibodies to VESVs and SMSVs have been found in
terrestrial mammals along the West coast of the US including
wild boars, foxes, buffaloes, donkeys, and cattle. This suggests
that the host range of these viruses may extend beyond pigs and
sea lions. Human infection with these viruses has not been
Infected pigs may develop fever, lameness, and vesicles followed by
erosions in the mouth and on the snout, feet, and teats. The
infection is easily confused with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).
However, lesions in VESV-infected pigs seem to be deeper, and
granulation tissue commonly forms especially on the feet.
Morbidity can reach almost 100%, but mortality is low.
Transmission of the virus is mainly through direct contact,
oronasal and lachrymal secretions, urine, feces, insemination,
blood transfer, or feeding of raw or insufficiently cooked meat
from infected animals
Diagnosis of VESV infection by serological methods is difficult because
of its close antigenicity to SMSV and other caliciviruses.
Molecular detection by PCR is highly sensitive, specific and
rapid, and is a useful alternative to traditional methods (Neill
and Seal, 1995)
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of VESV infection
Help ensure that animal herds and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of this virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Neill, J.D. and Seal, B.S. (1995) Development of PCR primers for specific
amplification of two distinct regions of the genomes of San
Miguel sea-lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses. Mol.
Cell Probes 9:33-37.
whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or
oral, nasal or eye swab, or 0.2 ml feces, or rectal swab, or 0.2
ml urine, or 0.2 ml fresh
or frozen tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See
for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR