avian & livestock assay data sheet
Newcastle disease virus
- Ultrasensitive detection of Newcastle disease virus by
reverse transcription coupled real time PCR
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a
single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridiae
total genome size is approximately 16 kb. Replication of the
virus occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell.
Disease caused by this virus is highly contagious and usually
fatal. The virus can infect most species of birds. Infected
birds can develop variable symptoms depending on the strain of
virus, species and age of bird, concurrent disease, and
preexisting immunity. Four broad clinical syndromes are
recognized: viscerotropic velogenic, neurotropic velogenic,
lentogenic. Respiratory symptoms, diarrhea, and
partial egg drops have been reported for infected birds.
Because the virus is so virulent, many birds die without showing
any clinical signs. The mortality rate is close to 100% in
unvaccinated poultry flocks. Even in vaccinated poultry flocks,
the virus may still infect and cause death, due to reduced
immunity of the birds as a result of age or other diseases.
The virus is spread primarily through direct contact with the
bodily discharges of infected birds. Droppings and secretions
from the nose, beak, and eyes of infected birds have high
concentrations of the virus. The virus can survive for several
weeks in a warm and humid environment on birds' feathers,
manure, and other materials. Dehydration and UV irradiation from
sunlight can rapidly kill the virus.
Diagnosis of NDV infection can be achieved by culture, ELISA or
PCR. Real time PCR
offers a rapid, sensitive and highly specific means of detecting
this virus (Tan et al., 2004).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Identify Newcastle virus carriers
Screen research materials for the presence of Newcastle
Help ensure that animal groups are free of Newcastle virus
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from
Tan, S.W., Omar, A.R., Aini, I., Yusoff, K. and Tan, W.S. (2004)
Detection of Newcastle disease virus using a SYBR Green I real
time polymerase chain reaction.
Acta Virol. 48:23-28.
Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml cell
culture, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD
(yellow top) tube, or swab, or tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business days
Methodology: Qualitative reverse
transcription coupled real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected