avian & livestock assay data sheet
- Ultrasensitive detection of vaccinia virus by real time PCR
Vaccinia virus is a large, complex, enveloped virus
belonging to the Poxvirus family. The virus contains a large,
linear, double-stranded DNA genome with size close to 190 kb in
length, which may encode for more than 250 genes. Members of the
Poxvirus family are unique because they replicate only in the
cytoplasmic region of the host cell and not in the nuclear
region. Thus, the viral genome must be large enough to code for
various proteins needed for viral DNA replication and gene
People infected with vaccinia virus usually develop very
mild or subclinical symptoms. A few infected people may develop
mild rash and fever. Immune responses generated from vaccinia
infection can protect the infected person against subsequent
smallpox infection due to the high degree of similarity between
the two viruses. Vaccinia virus is often used as a live-virus
vaccine against smallpox. However, certain complications and/or
vaccine adverse effects occasionally arise from the use of this
vaccine, especially in people whose immune systems are
Detection of vaccinia virus can be achieved by the shell
vial culture method, but that method requires a lengthy
incubation period and is not very sensitive. However, molecular
detection by PCR is highly sensitive, specific and rapid
(Fedorko et al., 2005).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Identify vaccinia virus carriers
Screen research materials for the presence of vaccinia virus
Help ensure that animal groups are free of vaccinia virus
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from
Fedorko, D.P., Preuss, J.C., Fahle, G.A., Li
L, Fischer, S.H., Hohman, P. and Cohen, J.I. (2005) Comparison
of methods for detection of vaccinia virus in patient specimens.
J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:4602–4606.
0.2 ml cell culture, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA
(purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or lesion swab, or 0.2 ml
fresh, frozen or preserved tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
for more information.
Turnaround time: 2 business days
Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected