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In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

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Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi

Campylobacter

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Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever

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Cryptosporidium

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Edwardsiella

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Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

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Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Giardia

Helicobacter

Hepatitis E

Histoplasma

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses

Klebsiella

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Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Mink enteritis virus

Monkeypox

Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Pasteurella multocida

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Pseudorabies

Q fever

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Reovirus screen

Rickettsia

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Rotavirus

Salmonella

Sarcocystis neurona

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi

Vaccinia

Vesicular stomatitis

Vibrio

West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Campylobacter PCR tests for animals
environmental, wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Campylobacter

Test codes:

B0006 - Qualitative Campylobacter species screen by real time polymerase chain reaction.  This assay detects but does not differentiate C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. lari and other Campylobacter species.

Test B0006 is included in P0041 - waterborne pathogens screening panel and in P0047 - ruminant fecal screening panel

B0007 - Qualitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni only, by real time polymerase chain reaction.

 

Family Campylobacteraceae includes 2 genera, Campylobacter and Arcobacter. There are 18 species and subspecies within the genus Campylobacter, 11 of which are considered pathogenic to humans, causing enteric and extra-intestinal illnesses. The major pathogens are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter fetus. These pathogens are small, curved, motile, microaerophilic, gram-negative rods. They vary in width from 0.2-0.9 um and in length from 0.5-5.0 um. They exhibit rapid, darting motility in corkscrew fashion by means of a single flagellum or 2 flagella (monotrichous, amphitrichous). They also possess a lipopolysaccharide endotoxin.

Campylobacteriosis is the infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. Most people suffering from campylobacteriosis develop diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain, and fever within 2 to 5 days after exposure to the organism. The diarrhea may be bloody and can be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The symptoms may last for one week. Some persons infected with Campylobacter, however, may be asymptomatic. In persons with compromised immune systems, Campylobacter can occasionally spread to the bloodstream and causes a serious life-threatening infection.

People who get campylobacteriosis usually recover completely within 2 to 5 days, although sometimes recovery can take up to 10 days. Although rare, long-term consequences sometimes result from Campylobacter infection. Some people may have arthritis following campylobacteriosis; others may develop a rare disease that affects the nerves of the body beginning several weeks after the diarrheal illness. This disease, called Guillain-Barré syndrome, occurs when a person's immune system is "triggered" to attack the body's own nerves, and can lead to paralysis that lasts several weeks and usually requires intensive care. It is estimated that approximately one in 1000 reported campylobacteriosis cases leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome. As many as 40% of Guillain-Barré syndrome cases in the United States may be caused by campylobacteriosis.

In colonies of nonhuman primates, recurring diarrhea is the leading cause of animal morbidity requiring veterinary care (Elmore et al., 1992; Munoz-Zanzi et al., 1999) and one of the leading causes for this chronic enterocolitis is infection with Campylobacter bacteria, especially C. coli and C. jejuni (Sestak et al., 2003). Recently, Campylobacter infection has also been linked to fetal death of Rhesus macaques (Baze, and Bernacky, 2002). Because macaques can be asymptomatic carriers and Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is common, this finding has implications for breeding success in nonhuman primate breeding colonies.

Although Campylobacter bacteria isolation can be used to diagnose the bacterial infection, a long incubation period is required to obtain results. Furthermore, bacterial culture is not very sensitive nor specific, and it increases the potential risk of laboratory personnel contacting the bacteria. Subspecies identification by culture can be difficult due to new variants. Campylobacter detection by PCR is not only rapid, sensitive and specific, but can also accurately subtype the bacteria.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal groups or populations are free of Campylobacter bacteria
  • Early prevention of spread of the bacteria among an animal group or population
  • Minimize human exposure to the bacteria

References:
Elmore, D. B., J. H. Anderson, D. W. Hird, K. D. Sanders, and N. W. Lerche (1992). Diarrhea rates and risk factors for developing chronic diarrhea in infant and juvenile rhesus monkeys. Lab. Anim. Sci. 42:356-359.
Munoz-Zanzi, C. A., M. C. Thurmond, D. W. Hird, and N. W. Lerche (1999) Effect of weaning time and associated management practices on postweaning chronic diarrhea in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Lab. Anim. Sci. 49:617-621.
Sestak, K., Merritt, C.K., Borda, J., Saylor, E., Schwamberger, S.R., Cogswell, F., Didier, E.S., Didier, P.J., Plauche, G., Bohm, R.P., Aye, P.P., Alexa, P., Ward, R. and Lackner, A.A. (2003) Infectious agent and immune response characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus macaques. Infect Immun. 71:4079-86.
Baze, W.B. and Bernacky, B.J. (2002) Campylobacter-induced fetal death in a rhesus monkey. Vet Pathol. 39:605-7.
Kulkarni, S.P., Lever, S., Logan, J.M., Lawson, A.J., Stanley, J. and Shafi, M.S. (2002) Detection of campylobacter species: a comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction based methods. J Clin Pathol. 55:749-753.

Specimen requirements:

Preferred specimens - 0.2 ml feces, rectal swab, or 0.2 ml bacterial culture.

Less preferred specimen - 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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