Ruminating about hoofstock "issues"?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel

Aspergillus

Babesia

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi

Campylobacter

Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coccidioides

Coronaviruses

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium serpentis

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enterobacteraceae

Enterovirus

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Giardia

Hantavirus

Helicobacter

Hepatitis E

Histoplasma

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Legionella

Leishmania

Leptospira

Listeria monocytogenes

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Mink enteritis virus

Monkeypox

Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Pasteurella multocida

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Pseudorabies

Q fever

Rabies

Ranavirus

Reovirus screen

Rickettsia

Rift Valley fever

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Sarcocystis neurona

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi

Vaccinia

Valley Fever

Vesicular stomatitis

Vibrio

West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Enterobacter PCR tests

wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Enterobacteraceae

Test codes:

B0074 - Qualitative ultrasensitive detection of Enterobacteraceae by real time PCR.  Assay detects but does not differentiate many common bacteria in the family Enterobacteraceae.
B0088 - Qualitative ultrasensitive detection of Enterobacter cloacae only, by real time PCR.
B0089 - Qualitative ultrasensitive detection of Enterobacter cloacae complex only, by real time PCR.

Bacteria of the Enterobacter genus are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative strains belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae and are ubiquitous in the environment. These bacteria can be found in soil and sewage, and as normal gastrointestinal flora of humans and many animal species.

Currently, six species have been assigned to the Enterobacter cloacae complex, including E. cloacae, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, E. kobei, E. ludwigii and E. nimipressuralis. Among them, E. cloacae is most important because it accounts for up to 5% of hospital-acquired sepsis, 5% of nosocomial pneumonias, 4% of nosocomial urinary tract infections and 10% of postsurgical peritonitis cases. E. cloacae tends to contaminate various medical, intravenous and other hospital devices, and nosocomial outbreaks of E. cloacae have been associated with its colonization of certain surgical equipment and operative cleaning solutions. E. nimipressuralis is a plant pathogen and has not been associated with human diseases.

Members of E. cloacae complex have general characteristics of the genus Enterobacter: they are catalase-positive, oxidase- and DNAase-negative, fermentative and nonpigmented. They can be routinely identified using phenotypic methods. However, identification solely based on phenotypic methods may lead to misidentification. For example, E. hormaechei can be misidentified as Cronobacter sakazakii based on phenotypic methods (Townsend et al., 2008). However, molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly specific and sensitive and can help the identification process.

Utilities:                      

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Enterobacteraceae infection
  • Help ensure animal groups and populations are free of Enterobacteraceae
  • Early prevention of spread of these bacteria among a population
  • Minimize human exposure to these bacteria
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from susceptible animals

References:
Townsend, S.M., Hurrell, E., Caubilla-Barron, J., Loc-Carrillo, C. and Forsythe, S.J. (2008) Characterization of an extended-spectrum betalactamase Enterobacter hormaechei nosocomial outbreak, and other Enterobacter hormaechei misidentified as Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii. Microbiology 154:3659–3667.

Specimen requirement:  0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml food, or 0.2 ml urine, or nasopharyngeal swab, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml feces.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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