We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

Parrots moving in or moving out? Try our psittacine PCR screening panel.

Respiratory problems got you breathless? Try our poultry respiratory PCR panel.

Our DRY CARDS let you mail blood samples to Zoologix easily and cheaply from anywhere because DRY CARD samples are small, light and stable at room temperature for several weeks.

Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Akabane virus PCR test
avian & livestock assay data sheet

Akabane virus

Test code: S0199 - Ultrasensitive detection of Akabane virus by reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Akabane virus is an insect-transmitted virus that causes congenital abnormalities of the central nervous system in ruminants. The virus belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and is spread by biting midges (Culicoides spp).  There are a number of different strains of the virus including Tinaroo virus, Sabo virus and Yaba-7 virus. The various strains of Akabane virus may differ considerably in their virulence.

Akabane virus has been detected in many tropical and subtropical areas. Disease due to Akabane virus has been reported in Australia, Israel, Kenya, Japan, and Korea; antibodies to it have been found in a number of countries in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. In these endemic areas, herbivores are bitten by the vector insect, become infected at an early age, and develop a long-lasting immunity by the time of breeding. Fetal congenital abnormalities are therefore seldom seen. However, under some environmental conditions such as an extended humid summer, the insect vector may spread into new areas, and outbreaks of congenital infection are then seen in those areas.

The disease affects fetuses of cattle, sheep, and goats. Asymptomatic infection has been demonstrated serologically in horses, buffalo, and deer (but not in humans or pigs) in endemic areas. Not all infections result in congenital abnormalities and the incidence rate is determined by the time of gestation at which infection occurs and also by the strain of virus. Infections in cattle during the last 3 months of pregnancy result in approximately 5–10% affected calves. Peak incidence is seen when infection occurs in the third and fourth months of pregnancy; up to 40% of calves of mothers infected at this stage of pregnancy may be born with defects.

Sheep and goats infected with this virus do not have the same sequential manifestation of different abnormalities seen in cattle because of the shorter period of gestation and the shorter period of susceptibility.

Diagnosis of the disease is often confirmed by necropsy.  Serology has been used but is not very sensitive. However, molecular detection by PCR is highly sensitive, specific and rapid.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Akabane virus infection
  • Help ensure that animal herds and populations are free of akabane virus
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
  • Minimize human exposure to the virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from animals

References:
Kamata, H., Inai, K., Maeda, K., Nishimura, T., Arita, S., Tsuda, T. and Sato, M. (2009) Encephalomyelitis of cattle caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan in 2006. J. Comp. Pathol. 140:187-193.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

2003-2017 Zoologix, Inc. • Email Zoologix • Phone (818) 717-8880