We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

Parrots moving in or moving out? Try our psittacine PCR screening panel.

Respiratory problems got you breathless? Try our poultry respiratory PCR panel.

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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine endogenous retrovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coccidiodes

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma species

Mycoplasma suis

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Valley fever

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum PCR test

avian & livestock assay data sheet

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Test code:
B0101 - Ultrasensitive detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) by real time PCR

 

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative bacterium formerly known as Ehrlichia phagocytophilum. It causes anaplasmosis in sheep and cattle, also known as tick-borne fever and pasture fever respectively. The bacteria tend to attack neutrophils and when they infect humans, they can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis.

The bacteria are transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the vector of A. phagocytophilum in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States. The western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) is the primary vector in Northern California.

When humans are infected, it may take one to two weeks before symptoms develop. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain, skin rash (in rare occasions), leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and mild injury to the liver.

When animals are infected with these bacteria, they may develop lethargy, ataxia, inappetence, and weak or painful limbs, but the most severe changes are anemia and leukopenia. The infection is often confused with Lyme disease, another tick-borne illness.

Serological detection of these bacteria can take some time to reach a definitive diagnosis. Molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly specific and sensitive way to detect the presence of these bacteria, and should be considered as an alternative to the serological method (Kirtz et al., 2005).

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Anaplasma infection
  • Help ensure that herds are free of Anaplasma
  • Early prevention of spread of Anaplasma among animals
  • Minimize human exposure to Anaplasma
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from susceptible animals.

References:
Kirtz, G., Meli, M., Leidinger, E., Ludwig, P., Thum, D., Czettel, B., Kölbl, S. and Lutz, H. (2005) Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a dog: identifying the causative agent using PCR. J. Small Anim. Pract. 46:300-303.

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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