We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

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Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

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Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

avian & livestock assay data sheet

Bovine leukemia virus ("bovine enzootic leukosis")

Test code:
S0196
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of bovine leukemia virus by real time polymerase chain reaction

 

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an exogenous retrovirus that is similar to primate T-cell lymphotropic viruses 1, 2, and 3 (PTLV-1, -2, and -3), and human T-cell lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and -2). Cattle infected with BLV can develop a persistent infection with virus replication in B lymphocytes. The infection is transmitted through the transfer of infected cells via direct contact, through milk, and possibly by insect vectors.

Most infected animals remain sub-clinical. In these asymptomatic animals, less than 1% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and up to 10% of the circulating B lymphocytes are found to be infected. In 20–30% of infected animals, a permanent increase in the number of B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood can be detected. The increase in B-lymphocytes results from the polyclonal expansion of untransformed lymphocytes. However, a significant number of lymphocytes in these infected animals contain provirus. Clinical signs of malignant lymphoma become evident as tumors invade various lymphoid tissues resulting in enlarged lymph nodes, weight loss, decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.

Bovine leukemia virus is quite prevalent worldwide and causes significant economic impact on the dairy cattle industry due to reduced milk production, increased replacement costs, reduced conception rates, and greater susceptibility to other infectious diseases such as mastitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia.

Direct antigen detection methods have been used in the past to detect this virus and screen for infected cattle but those methods are not very sensitive. However, molecular detection by PCR (Heenemann et al., 20112) is highly sensitive, specific and rapid.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Identify bovine leukemia virus carriers
  • Help ensure that herds and populations are free of bovine leukemia virus
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus among animals
  • Minimize human exposure to this virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from animals

References:
Heenemann, K., Lapp, S., Teifke, J.P., Fichtner, D., Mettenleiter, T.C., and Vahlenkamp, T.W. (2012) Development of a bovine leukemia virus polymerase gene-based real-time polymerase chain reaction and comparison with an envelope gene-based assay. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 24:649-655
.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

Bovine leukemia virus PCR test

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