We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

Parrots moving in or moving out? Try our psittacine PCR screening panel.

Respiratory problems got you breathless? Try our poultry respiratory PCR panel.

Our DRY CARDS let you mail blood samples to Zoologix easily and cheaply from anywhere because DRY CARD samples are small, light and stable at room temperature for several weeks.

Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Candida albicans PCR test
avian & livestock assay data sheet

Candida albicans

Test code:
F0002 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Candida albicans by real time polymerase chain reaction

 

Candidiasis, also known as monoliasis, is caused by a common yeast-like organism belonging to the Candida genus. When the infection occurs in the oral cavity, it is often called oral thrush. In severe cases, the infection can result in crop necrosis. Among the Candida genus, Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered species.

In birds, the disease is believed by some to be caused by overgrowth of the low numbers of Candida that are found as part of the normal flora. The infection may be primary or secondary to other systemic or oropharyngeal diseases. Vitamin A deficiency or prolonged antibiotic therapy, especially in young birds, predisposes birds to such infection. Others believe the sole source of infection is through eating foods contaminated by the yeast. While common in birds, candidiasis also affects some animals, including humans. From the limited number of correlation studies performed, it does appear that there is a correlation between an increased incidence of candidiasis and warm conditions, i.e. summer months.

Regurgitation, anorexia, and delayed crop emptying may result from infection of a bird’s crop with C. albicans,. Some birds develop a swollen, mucus-filled crop. White plaques may be present in the mouth if oral Candida is present. The symptoms must be differentiated from vitamin A deficiency, pox, and trichomonas infection in order to administer appropriate treatment. Feather problems around the crop due to irritation and beak abnormalities can result from chronic infection.

Since many birds have been previously exposed to this yeast, serological testing is not useful or reliable. Culture identification is labor intensive and cultures are often contaminated with other fungi. Molecular detection by PCR can provide quick, sensitive and specific detection of the fungus in a variety of specimen types.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Candida infection.
  • Help ensure that flocks are free of this yeast
  • Early prevention of spread of this yeast
  • Minimize personnel exposure to this yeast
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from birds

Specimen requirements: Throat swab, or cloacal swab.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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