We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

Parrots moving in or moving out? Try our psittacine PCR screening panel.

Respiratory problems got you breathless? Try our poultry respiratory PCR panel.

Our DRY CARDS let you mail blood samples to Zoologix easily and cheaply from anywhere because DRY CARD samples are small, light and stable at room temperature for several weeks.

Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Malaria (Plasmodium) PCR test

avian & livestock assay data sheet

Malaria (Plasmodium species)

 

Test code: X0014 - Ultrasensitive qualitative screen for Plasmodium species by real time PCR. This assay detects but does not differentiate most malaria-causing Plasmodium species, including P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi, P. fieldi, P. hylobati, P. juxtanucleare, P. yoelii, P. brasilianum, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, P. schwetzi, P. reichenowi, P. eyles, P.jefferyi, P. youngi, P. pitheci, P. silvaticum, P. coatneyi, P. fragile, P. simiovale, P. gonderi, P. simium, P. cathemerium, P. relictum and P. gallinaceum.

Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are transmitted by infected Anopheles mosquitos. As the infected female mosquito takes a blood meal, it injects the parasite, which travels in the bloodstream to the liver. Inside the liver, the organism undergoes several developmental changes leading to the release of a large number of merozoites. These merozoites invade the red blood cells. The asexual stages often seen in blood films are young trophozoites (also known as “ring forms”), mature trophozoites, and the dividing schizonts that yield the merozoites for a new generation.

Many species of Plasmodium infect birds (Jones & Shellam, 1999). Some are host species specific; others infect a range of avian species. P. relictum has become a particular problem in situations where naive birds are exposed to mosquito vectors - for example, penguins in zoos, and endemic species of Hawaiian birds which have only recently been exposed to invasive mosquitos.

Birds infected with Plasmodium are often subclinical, making identification of carriers extremely difficult. Parasitemia in infected birds can fluctuate dramatically over short periods, so Plasmodium screening should be performed at multiple time points. In particular, stress or other immune-suppressive events may trigger an increase in parasitemia from previously undetectable levels.

The genetic sequences of many species of Plasmodium which infect birds are not yet fully characterized. However, assay X0014 is designed to detect a broad range of Plasmodium species based on current sequence information, but to avoid cross-reaction with non-Plasmodium species which could potentially be found in avian blood.

Traditionally, malaria screening and diagnosis relied on microscopic examination of blood smears. This method is fast and cheap but has a very low sensitivity. Successful detection in blood smears also depends on collecting the specimen at the peak of the parasitemia. Antibody detection can be used to diagnose the disease but paired serum samples several weeks apart are required in order to identify actively infected animals, making rapid diagnosis impossible. Furthermore, most serology testing currently available targets the Plasmodium species that infect humans, such as P. malariae, P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale. Reagents used for these human serology tests are not appropriate for screening birds. Molecular detection by PCR is a rapid, specific and sensitive method for accurately diagnosing and identifying carriers.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Plasmodium infection
  • Help ensure that bird populations are free of Plasmodium
  • Early prevention of spread of malaria among a flock
  • Minimize human exposure to Plasmodium
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from birds

References:
Jones, H.I. & Shellam, G.R. 1999. Blood parasites in penguins, and their potential impact on conservation. Marine Ornithology 27: 181–184.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube; or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or preserved liver or spleen tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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