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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

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Anaplasma phagocytophilum

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Aspergillus species

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Blood typing for swine

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Poultry respiratory panel

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Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

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Wesselsbron virus

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Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Fusobacterium necrophorum PCR test

avian & livestock assay data sheet

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Test code:
B0093 - Ultrasensitive detection of Fusobacterium necrophorum by real time PCR

 

Fusobacterium organisms are anaerobic, non-motile, gram-negative bacilli. The genus includes F. necrophorum, F. nucleatum, F. mortiferu, F. varium, F. gonidaformans, F. alocis, F. pseudonecrophorum, F. salci, and F. ulcerans. Members of this genus usually appear as slender or fusiform rods with tapered ends under microscope. However, some species may be pleomorphic in shape.

Fusobacteria are normal inhabitants of mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. F. nucleatum is the most commonly identified Fusobacterium, but F. necrophorum is the most virulent species. Fusobacteria are generally susceptible to penicillin, clindamycin, and chloramphenicol, and resistant to erythromycin and macrolides.

F. necrophorum can cause various diseases in domestic animals. It is known to be associated with bucket feeding because feeding buckets are often contaminated with feces. These bacteria can enter through abrasions in the mucosa of the pharynx and larynx and cause fever, depression, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress and halitosis. Aspiration of necrotic material into lungs may cause fatal bronchopneumonia.

In cattle, F. necrophorum can cause calf diphtheria or necrotic laryngitis, and necrobacillosis of the mouth and pharynx of young calves. More severe infections may involve bovine liver abscesses and localized necrosis and scab formation of the teat orifice and sphincter of cows. It is also associated with metritis in dairy cows (Bicalho et al., 2012). In pigs, F. necrophorum may cause necrotic rhinitis whereas in sheep, it can cause interdigital dermatitis in association with D. nodosus and Acranobacter pyogenes. It also causes laryngeal chondritis in sheep and mixed infections in heel abscesses.

F. necrophorum is difficult to grow in culture and often requires selective media with subsequent phenotypic characterization. Molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly specific, sensitive, and rapid. Thus, molecular method is a good alternative to traditional methods.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Fusobacterium necrophorum infection
  • Help ensure that herds are free of this bacterium
  • Early prevention of spread of this bacterium among animals
  • Minimize human exposure to this bacterium
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from susceptible animals.

References:
Bicalho, M.L., Machado, V.S., Oikonomou, G., Gilbert, R.O. and Bicalho, R.C. (2012) Association between virulence factors of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes and uterine diseases of dairy cows. Vet. Microbiol. 157:125-131.

Specimen requirement: Nasopharyngeal swabs, or fecal swabs, or 0.2 ml feces, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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