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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Foot and mouth disease virus PCR test
avian & livestock assay data sheet

Foot and mouth disease virus

Test code: S0156
- Ultrasensitive detection of foot and mouth disease virus by reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is caused by a virus that resides in the lymph nodes and bone marrow of infected animals. The virus is an aphthovirus belonging to the Picornaviridae family. Seven immunologically distinct serotypes have been described: A, O, C, Asia 1, and SAT (Southern African Territories) 1, 2, and 3. Within each serotype, there are a large number of strains that exhibit a spectrum of antigenic characteristics. More than one vaccine strain for each serotype, particularly O and A, is thus required to cover the antigenic diversity. 

Infected animals will develop fever and vesicles in the mouth and on the muzzle, teats, and feet. In a susceptible population, morbidity approaches 100%. Although infected animals can often recover, young animals can die. 

Ruminants and pigs are the two major natural hosts of food-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses.  There are more than seventy mammalian species that are susceptible to this viral infection either under natural or experimental conditions.  Only reptiles, amphibians, and fishes are naturally resistant to infection. 

Domestic birds (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks and geese) can be infected with some strains of FMD viruses by experimental inoculation and may develop lesions suggestive of FMD such as vesicular lesions on the comb, wattles, eye lids, and feet.  Chickens can get infected by ingestion of virus under conditions of natural exposure. Domestic birds kept in free-run systems thus may serve as vectors to pass the virus to other nearby birds. Free-living birds, especially starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), seagulls (Larus canus) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), have been experimentally infected and developed vesicular lesions on the skin and mucosal membranes of the mouth.  These migrating birds may serve as vectors to carry the virus to distant places. 

The virus can survive in contaminated fodder (dry hay and other forages) for up to one month. It can also be carried many miles away by the wind. Thus the disease is highly communicable and an infected herd can have a devastating effect on neighboring farms and barns. 

Although virus isolation and serology testing have been used to diagnose the infection, molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is often used because of its high specificity and sensitivity.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Identify foot and mouth disease carriers
  • Screen research materials for the presence of foot and mouth disease
  • Help ensure that animal groups are free of foot and mouth disease
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
  • Minimize human exposure to the virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from susceptible animals

References:
Longjam, N., Deb, R., Sarmah, A. K., Tayo, T., Awachat,V. B. and Saxena, V.K. (2011) A Brief Review on Diagnosis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease of Livestock: Conventional to Molecular Tools. Vet. Med.  Int. 2011: 905768.

Specimen requirements: Lesion swab, or nasal swab, or 0.2 ml cell culture, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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