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...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Jena virus PCR test for livestock
avian & livestock assay data sheet

Jena virus

Test code:
S0183 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Jena virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction

 

Noroviruses are small nonenveloped viruses with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of 7.5 kb. Currently, noroviruses are classified into five genogroups: human noroviruses belong to genogroups I, II and IV; bovine noroviruses belong to genogroup III; porcine noroviruses belong to genogroup II; and murine noroviruses belong to genogroup V. Within genogroup III, two genotypes of bovine norovirus exist: these are represented by genotype 1, Jena virus (JV), which was isolated from cattle in Germany; and genotype 2, Newbury 2 virus, which was identified in the feces of diarrheic calves in the United Kingdom.

Norovirus infections are the most frequent cause of nonbacterial diarrheic disease in humans and in several animal species. However, noroviruses belonging to genogroup III, including Jena virus, have not been reported in humans and do not appear to cause human disease.

Studies have shown that there are differences in the epidemiological distribution and pathogenicity between the two genotypes of genogroup III bovine noroviruses. Genotype 2 (Newbury 2 virus) has been predominantly found in calves in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States, South Korea, Belgium, and Hungary. Conventionally-kept calves inoculated at 1 to 8 days of age with this virus had little or no diarrhea. In gnotobiotic calves, mild diarrhea, transient anorexia, and xylose malabsorption were the common clinical signs after infection with Newbury 2 virus. On the other hand, when newborn calves were infected with genotype 1 (Jena virus), diarrhea was consistently shown.

Viral culture detection of noroviruses is difficult because they do not grow well in culture. Antigen detection has low sensitivity. However, molecular detection by PCR is sensitive, specific and fast (Otto et al., 2011).

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Jena virus infection.
  • Help ensure that herds are free of Jena virus
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus
  • Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from susceptible animals

References:
Otto, P.H., Clarke, I.N. Lambden, P.R., Salim, O., Reetz, I. and Liebler-Tenorio, E. M. (2011) Infection of calves with bovine norovirus GIII.1 strain Jena Virus: an experimental model to study the pathogenesis of norovirus infection. J. Virol. 85: 12013-12021.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml feces, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml culture.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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