avian & livestock assay data sheet
Porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses 1 and 2
Ultrasensitive detection of porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses 1
and 2 by real time PCR
Herpesviruses are widely distributed and have been found in
insects, reptiles, amphibians and every species of bird and
mammal. One important characteristic of herpesvirus infection is
that the virus persists in the infected host for life and is
frequently reactivated and shed. In pigs, five herpesviruses
have been identified: pseudorabies virus, porcine
cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and three recently identified
lymphotrophic herpesviruses, PLHV-1, PLHV-2 and PLHV-3.
-2 are highly homologous to each other but not to PLHV-3. The
two viruses are widespread in domestic pigs and are closely
related to several ruminant gammaherpesviruses, most of which
are etiologically implicated in the occurrence of malignant
catarrhal fever (MCF), a lymphoproliferative inflammatory
disease with an often fatal outcome. PLHV-1 and -2 are also
related to Epstein-Barr Virus, Human Herpesvirus-8 and other
study (McMahon et al., 2006) in domestic pigs has shown that
PLHV1 infections are most common, being found in 74% of animals
tested, followed by PLHV3 at 45% and PLHV2 at 21%. Infections
with multiple PLHV species were frequently detected.
CMV, antibodies to PLHV have been found in a high percentage of
swine herds worldwide. Because of the high prevalence of
positive serology, serological identification of infected pigs
is not possible. Many of these latent carriers remain
unidentified, posing serious problems for research using the pig
as a model. In xenotransplantation between pig and human,
reactivation of these latent viruses can cause
postransplantation failure. Molecular detection of these viruses
is an important tool to provide rapid, sensitive and specific
detection of the viral nucleic acid in suspected animals.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Identify PLHV-1 and -2 carriers
Help ensure that animal colonies and populations are free of
PLHV-1 and -2
Early prevention of spread of these viruses among
Minimize human exposure to these viruses
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
McMahon, K.J., Minihan, D., Campion, E.M., Loughran, S.T.,
Allan, G., McNeilly, F. and Walls, D. (2006) Infection of pigs
in Ireland with lymphotropic
herpesviruses and relationship to postweaning multisystemic
wasting syndrome. Vet. Microbiol. 116:60-68.
Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top)
tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.
types other than those listed here, please call to confirm
specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR
Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus PCR test