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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine endogenous retrovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coccidiodes

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma species

Mycoplasma suis

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Valley fever

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Avian and mammalian Streptococcus PCR test

avian & livestock assay data sheet

Streptococcus

Test code:
B0098 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Streptococcus bacteria by real time polymerase chain reaction

The genus Streptococcus can be taxonomically divided into six major clusters comprising at least 31 species; the following table lists some of the species classified in these clusters:

Pyogenic group: S. agalactiae, S. canis, S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. iniae, S. porcinus, S. pyogenes
Bovis group: S. bovis, S. equinus, S. alactolyticus
Salivarius group: S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, S. vestibularis
Mutans group: S. cricetus, S. downei, S. mutans, S. sobrinus
Anginosus group (aka Milleri group): S. anginosus, S. constellatus, S. intermedius
Mitis group: S. mitis, S. oralis, S. pneumoniae, S. sanguis, S. parasanguis, S. gordonii.

No single classification system adequately differentiates this heterogeneous group of organisms. Instead, classification depends on a combination of phenotypic biochemical and genetic characteristics, such as patterns of hemolysis observed on blood agar plates, antigenic composition, growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, and genetic analysis (Poyart et al., 1998).

In clinical laboratories, the current means of identification of streptococci relies on phenotypic tests such as those developed for the API ID 32 Strep system. However, not all strains within a given species may be positive for a common trait, and the same strain may exhibit some biochemical variability. Moreover, small alterations in the performance of one of these tests may yield false results. Thus phenotypic test results can be equivocal for identification of certain streptococcal species, in particular, those belonging to the Milleri, Mutans, and Mitis groups.

However, molecular detection of Streptococcus bacteria by PCR is helpful to quickly identify the bacteria; subsequent genetic sequence analysis can then be performed on the PCR amplicon if necessary, to further characterize the bacteria.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Streptococcus infection.
  • Help ensure that flocks are free of Streptococcus
  • Early prevention of spread of Streptococcus
  • Minimize personnel exposure to these bacteria
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from susceptible mammals and birds

References:
Poyart, C.,  Quesne, G.,  Coulon, S.,  Berche, P. and Trieu-cuot, P. (1998) Identification of Streptococci to species level by sequencing the gene encoding the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:41-47.

Specimen requirements:
0.2 ml EDTA whole blood, or nasopharyngeal swab, or 0.2 ml culture, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue
.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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